1 ASOIAN, A. A. “‘V misticheskoi kupaias’ mgle...’: Dante i Viach. Ivanov” [“Bathing in a mystic gloom...”: Dante and Viach. Ivanov]. In “Pochtite vysochaishego poeta...”: Suďba “Bozhestvennoi Komedii” Dante v Rossii [“Honour the greatest poet...”: The fate of the Divine Comedy in Russia]. Seriia “Sud’by knig.” Moscow: Kniga, 148—81.

Reprint of 1989.3, incorporating 1988.2.

2 AVERINTSEV, S. S. “V. I. Ivanov.” In Krug chteniia: Kalendar’. 1991 [Cycle of reading: Calendar. 1991]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 120—21.

In Russian. A short article introduces a selection of nine poems by Ivanov. Comments on the difficulty for contemporaries of achieving an adequate understanding of symbolism and Ivanov. Defends Ivanov against the biographical distortions of Berdiaev and against the charge of coldnesss. Singles out “muzhestvo” [courage] as the chief virtue of his poetry.

3 BARTLETT, R. A. “Wagner and Russia: A Study of the Influence of the Music and Ideas of Richard Wagner on the Artistic and Cultural Life of Russia and the Soviet Union 1841—1941.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oxford, 355 pp.

Four chapters of the thesis chronicle the rise of Russian Wagnerism and analyze the influence of the composer’s music and dramatic theories on the Russian Symbolist movement, devoting separate chapters to Ivanov, Belyi, and Blok. Chapter 4 (pp. 124—64), “Wagner and Vyacheslav Ivanov,” consists of four sections, “’Music’ and the New Dionysian Age,” “Wagner and Russian Symbolism,” “Primordial Chaos and the Rebirth of the Chorus,” and “Revolution and the Imminence of ‘synthesis.’” Discusses the important role that Wagner’s music played in the formation of Ivanov’s concept of music.


Points out the Wagnerian qualities of Ivanov’s verse and discusses his belief that Wagner’s works had not only led directly to the birth of the Russian Symbolist movement but had also foretold its ultimate evolution into “myth-creation.” Analyzes the striking similarity between Wagner’s theories of the “art of the future” and Ivanov’s utopian theories for the revival of the Dionysian rite, suggesting that the poet’s desire for a people’s art of myth and music was inspired primarily by Wagner. Concludes with a description of Ivanov’s views after the Revolution, noting little change since 1905. Appendix 4 gives details of the variations between Ivanov’s “Gimny Erosu” [Hymns to Eros] and Chelovek [Man]. See also Durylin, 1913.3; Rosenthal, 1984.25; Porfir’eva, 1987.18; Gozenpud, 1990.26; Bartlett, 1993.5; Rizzi, 1993.47.

4 BELYI, ANDREI. Mezhdu dvukh revoliutsii [Between two revolutions]. Edited by A. V. Lavrov. Seriia literaturnykh pamiatnikov (memuarov). Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, passim.

Reprint of 1934.1 with detailed notes and a full index to all three volumes of Belyi’s memoirs. See also Belyi, 1990.5.

5 BELYI, ANDREI. Nachalo veka [The beginning of the century]. Edited by A. V. Lavrov. Seriia literaturnykh pamiatnikov (memuarov). Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 340—62 and passim.

Reprint of 1933.1 with detailed notes and variant readings from archival sources. References to Ivanov can be traced through the index included in the third book of the trilogy (1990.4).

6 BERDIAEV, NIKOLAI. “Ivanovskie sredy” [Ivanov’s Wednesdays]. In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 319—23.

Reprint of 1916.3.

7 BOGDANOV, V. A. “Ivanov, Viacheslav Ivanovich.” In Russkie pisateli: Biobibliograficheskii slovar’ [Russian writers: A biobibliographical dictionary]. Vol. 1: A-L. Edited by P. A. Nikolaev. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 325—27.

In Russian. Surveys Ivanov’s life and works, devoting most space to his aesthetic theory. Asserts that Ivanov as a poet did not have any noticeable influence on the development of Russian poetry, but that as a theoretician of symbolist aesthetics his role was decisive.

8 BOGOMOLOV, N. A. “Dnevniki v russkoi kul’ture nachala XX veka” [Diaries in early twentieth century Russian culture]. In Tynianovskii sbornik: Chetvertye Tynianovskie chteniia [An anthology of Tynianov materials: A fourth series of papers on Tynianov]. Latviiskaia akademiia nauk, Institut filosofii i prava. Riga: Zinatne, 148—58.

In Russian. Includes comments from the diaries of Ivanov and Kuzmin


on the public readings from Kuzmin’s diary, viewed as a characteristic phenomenon of early twentieth-century Russian culture (pp. 152—53).

9 BOGOMOLOV, N. A. “K odnomy temnomu epizodu v biografii Kuzmina” [On an obscure episode in the biography of Kuzmin]. In Mikhail Kuzmin i russkaia kul’tura XX veka [Mikhail Kuzmin and Russian culture of the twentieth century]. Tezisy i materialy konferentsii 15—17 maia 1990 g. Edited by G. A. Morev. Leningrad: Sovet po istorii mirovoi kul’tury AN SSSR, Muzei Anny Akhmatovoi v Fontannom Dome, 166—69.

In Russian. Investigates the reasons behind Kuzmin’s break with Ivanov in 1912. Quotes an extract from Kuzmin’s diary of 16 April 1912, reporting that Vera Shvarsalon told him that she was pregnant by Ivanov, loved Kuzmin, and asked him to marry her fictively. Outlines the scandal surrounding Kuzmin’s spreading of rumors, leading to the duel to which Vera’s brother challenged him. Draws on the account of these events given in letters from A. N. Chebotarevskaia to Ivanov of 3 October, 17 October and 5 December 1912.

10 BRIUSOV, VALERII. Sredi stikhov: 1894—1924. Manifesty. Stat’i. Retsenzii [Among verse: 1894—1924. Manifestos. Essays. Reviews]. Compiled by N. A. Bogomolov and N. V. Kotrelev. Introduction and notes by N. A. Bogomolov. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 74—75, 107—08, 190—94, 201, 208—12, 224—28, 320—24, 341—46, 362—76, 531, 547—49.

In Russian. Reprint of 1903.2, 1904.4, 1906.2, 1906.3, 1906.4, 1907.6, 1910.6, 1911.3, 1912.2, 1920.2, 1920.3 with notes but no index.

11 BRYŚ, GRAŻYNA. “Geneza i funkcje artystyczne motywu róży na podstawie cyklu wierszy Wiaczesława Iwanowa Rosarium. Wiersze o róży. Próba interpretacji” [The genesis and artistic functions of the motif of the rose in Viacheslav Ivanov’s cycle of poems “Rosarium. Verses about the rose”. An essay in interpretation]. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis (Wrocław), no. 1103 (Slavica Wratislaviensia 53): 79—102.

In Polish. Conveys the specific characteristics as well as the complex and multifaceted nature of Ivanov’s use of the symbol of the rose in “Rosarium,” the fifth book of Cor Ardens. Notes the recurrence of the symbol, its origins and artistic function as one of the key symbols of Ivanov’s verse. Discusses various poems in detail, including “Ad Rosam,” “Roza Preobrazheniia” [The rose of Transfiguration], “Roza Krovi” [The rose of Blood], “Roza Dionisa” [The rose of Dionysus], “Crux Amoris,” and “Plot’ i Krov’” [Flesh and Blood].

12 BURDZIEJ, BOGDAN. “Iwanowa i Gerszenzona ‘Diagonalny’ spór o kulturę.” [The “diagonal” debate on culture between Ivanov and Gershenzon]. Znak (Kraków), no. 417/18 (2/3): 5—9.

In Polish. Outlines the lives of Ivanov and Gershenzon as an introduction


to the author’s Polish translation of Perepiska iz dvukh uglov [A correspondence from two corners], published in the same issue of the journal (pp. 10—40). See also Zielinski, 1990.64.

13 CHARNYI, M. “Neozhidannaia vstrecha: Viacheslav Ivanov v Rime” [An unexpected encounter: Viacheslav Ivanov in Rome]. In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 323—30.

Reprint of 1966.2.

14 CYMBORSKA-LEBODA, M. “Uwagi do badań nad symbolizmem rosyjskim” [On the history of Russian symbolism]. Slavica (Annales Instituti Philologiae Slavicae Universitatis Debreceniensis de Ludovico Kossuth Nominatae) 24: 193—204.

In Polish. Outlines and discusses Belyi’s and Ivanov’s symbolist concepts of culture in connection with their understanding of the category of memory and of the role of the poet. On Ivanov and Belyi, see also Nivat, 1984.22; Nicolescu, 1988.49; Dioletta Siclari, 1993.14. See also Cymborska-Leboda, 1983.5, 1984.5, 1986.11, 1986.12, 1987.3, 1988.14, 1992.5, 1992.6, 1993.11.

15 DIOLETTA SICLARI, ANGELA, ed. Introduction to Simbolisti russi: Belyj, Brjusov, Ivanov, Sologub. Parma: Edizioni Zara, 5—44.

In Italian. The introduction to a collection of essays on art by the Russian symbolists includes a section on the sources and principal tenets of Ivanov’s aesthetics (pp. 35—38). Two essays by Ivanov (pp. 149—68) are included in the anthology, “Estetika i ispovedanie” [Aesthetics and creed] (1908) and “Manera, litso i stil’” [Manner, personality and style] (1912), translated into Italian by Maria Candida Ghidini and prefaced by a translator’s note.

16 DUDEK, A. “Twórczość Wiaczesława Iwanowa wobec kultury Zachodu” [The works of Viacheslav Ivanov in relation to Western culture]. In Dziesięc wieków związków wschodniej Słowiańszczyzny z kulturą Zachodu [Ten centuries of connections between Eastern Slavdom and Western culture]. Cz. I Literaturoznawstwo. Edited by J. Borsukiewicz. Lublin, 307—20.

In Polish. Outlines Ivanov’s view of culture, formed under the influence of Nietzsche and Plato. Notes his images of Paris and Rome, and his classification of culture into four categories, according to the artist’s relation to the collective ideal. Comments on his interest in Catholicism, marked by references to the cult of the Virgin Mary, Saint Augustine, and Saint Francis, and leading up to his conversion in 1926.

17 DUGANOV, R. V. Velimir Khlebnikov: Priroda tvorchestva [Velimir Khlebnikov: The nature of art]. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 16—18, 34—39.

In Russian. Comments on Khlebnikov’s attraction to Ivanov and locates


its sources in Ivanov’s view of the links between the national roots of the Russian language and the idea of a Slavonic renaissance. Includes a section “Otstuplenie pervoe: Ob uchitele i uchenike” [Digression one: On the teacher and the pupil], devoted to Ivanov’s relations with Khlebnikov. Relates Ivanov’s poem “Poslanie na Kavkaz” [Epistle to the Caucasus] (1912) to Khlebnikov, commenting on its references to Pushkin and Goethe and linking it with Ivanov’s earlier poem of 1909 dedicated to Khlebnikov (for a refutation, see Parnis, 1992.18). Discusses poems and projected prose works by Khlebnikov related to Ivanov. For further items on Khlebnikov and Ivanov, see Khlebnikov, 1940.2; Rayfield, 1966.15; Stepanov, 1975.14; Al’tman, 1985.1; Parnis, 1986.37, 1990.49, 1992.18, 1992.19, 1993.43.

18 D[YMSHITS], V., and L[APPO]-D[ANILEVSKII], K., eds. “Avtobiograficheskaia proza M. S. Al’tmana” [The autobiographical prose of M. S. Al’tman]. Preface and notes by K. L.-D. Minuvshee: Istoricheskii al’manakh (Paris), no. 10: 205—39.

In Russian. Publishes a section of Al’tman’s personal memoirs from the family archive, accompanied by notes. References to Al’tman and Ivanov cover their time in Baku from their first meeting in November 1920 and include an account of conversations about Khlebnikov. Records Ivanov’s visit to Al’tman’s home for a Passover meal and notes Ivanov’s comments about Jewish traditions and about Al’tman’s poetry. For a further section of the memoirs, see Al’tman, 1968.2; Mints, 1968.10. See also Manuilov, 1990.45.

19 ERENBURG, IL’IA. Liudi, gody, zhizn’: Vospominaniia v trekh tomakh [People, years, life: Memoirs in three volumes]. Vol. 1: Knigi pervaia, vtoraia, tret’ia [Books one, two, three]. Revised and enlarged edition. Introductory article by B. M. Sarnov. Edited and annotated by I. I. Erenburg and B. Ia. Frezinskii. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, passim.

Reprint of 1961.1, 1966.4 with notes and revisions. References to Ivanov (including a few from book 3, first published in 1963) can be traced through the index.

20 ETKIND, E. G. “Poeziia Novalisa: ’Mifologicheskii perevod’ Viacheslava Ivanova” [The poetry of Novalis: The “mythological translation” of Viacheslav Ivanov]. Russkaia literatura, 3, 157—64.

Reprint of 1988.21 with the insertion of one additional passage.

21 FLEISHMAN, LAZAR. Boris Pasternak: The Poet and His Politics. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, passim.

Includes several references (indexed) to the personal and ideological relations of Pasternak and Ivanov. Comments on their first meetings in 1912—1913 and on their encounters at Petrovskoe on the Oka in the summer of 1914 when Pasternak was working as tutor to Baltrushaitis’s son. Discusses


the similarities and differences between Ivanov’s “Mysli o simvolizme” [Thoughts on symbolism] (1912) and Pasternak’s first public talk in February 1913 on “Symbolism and Immortality.” Finds that Pasternak’s pronouncements on symbolism are permeated by the language of Ivanov, Belyi, and Ellis, but that he “imbues their concepts with a new content, one that challenges the very foundations of the symbolist theory.” Notes Sergei Bobrov’s adaptation in an article “On the lyrical theme” (1913) of Ivanov’s concept of the lyrical theme (following conversations with Pasternak), and comments on the Futurist assimilation of the Symbolist legacy. See also Bobrov, 1916.5; Parnis, 1990.48.

22 FLORENSKII, P. A. Vol. 2, U vodorazdelov mysli [At the watersheds of thought]. Introductory essay by S. S. Khoruzhii. Compiled by A. S. Trubachev, M. S. Trubacheva, and P. V. Florenskii. Prilozhenie k zhurnalu “Voprosy filosofii.” Moscow: Pravda, 144, 146, 279, 374—75, 388.

In Russian. Includes passing references to Ivanov’s ideas. Quotes from the first sonnet of “Plot’ i Krov’” [Flesh and Blood] to illustrate the link between thought and mystery, connected with the image of the rose in Ivanov’s poem. Links his concept of the symbol to Plato’s “idea” and to Goethe’s “protophenomenon.” An appendix by A. F. Losev on Florenskii’s use of the term “magic” includes mention of Ivanov’s identification of a Greek pagan ritual involving goats’ blood with Christianity. Ivanov’s name figures at the end of a list of Russian disciples of Schelling drawn up by Florenskii and preserved in his archive. See also Shishkin, 1990.56.

23 FRAJLICH-ZAJAC, ANNA. “The Image of Ancient Rome in the Poetry of Russian Symbolists.” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 260 pp.

Examines the image of Rome and its function within a given poetic system in the works of V. Solov’ev, Merezhkovskii, Briusov, Ivanov, Voloshin, Komarovskii, and Kuzmin. Considers the background and the stimulus leading to the creation of these images of Rome, and evaluates their link with the development of symbolist poetics. See Dissertation Abstracts International 52/03:938A.

24 GHIDINI, MARIA CANDIDA. “Critica letteraria e ermeneutica in Vjačeslav Ivanov.” Il confronto letterario (Quaderni del dipartimento di lingue e letterature straniere moderne dell’Università di Pavia), Year 7, no. 13 (May): 161—85.

In Italian. Considers Ivanov’s literary criticism in the context of symbolism as a method of “translating another author into one’s own language” and of communicating with the spiritual legacy of past eras. Outlines the German philosophical tradition of hermeneutics and its link with literary criticism, and examines the theories of Belyi and Ivanov as a continuation of


this tradition. Contrasts Ivanov’s understanding of the Dostoevskian term of “proniknovenie” [penetration] and his reading of Nietzsche with the views of W. Dilthey. Examines the organic continuity of Ivanov’s thought and his claims to present an “objective” reading of Dostoevskii in the light of a higher reality on the basis of his early essays and German book of 1932 on Dostoevskii. For an adapted version in Russian see Ghidini, 1993.23. On Ivanov’s hermeneutics, see also Szilard, 1993.52. On Dostoevskii and Ivanov, see also Golenishchev-Kutuzov, 1935.4; Jackson, 1989.29, 1993.30; Terras, 1990.58.

25 GIPPIUS, Z. N. “Poet i Tarpeiskaia skala” [The poet and the Tarpeian rock]. In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 371—73.

Reprint of 1938.3.

26 GOZENPUD, A. Rikhard Vagner i russkaia kul’tura: Issledovanie [Richard Wagner and Russian culture: An investigation]. Leningrad: Sovetskii kompozitor, 252—56.

In Russian. Includes a section on Ivanov’s view of music and image of Wagner, traced through his essays and letters up until 1919. See also Durylin, 1913.3; Rosenthal, 1984.25; Porfir’eva, 1987.18; Bartlett, 1990.3, 1993.5; Rizzi, 1993.47.

27 GUMILEV, N. S. Pis’ma o russkoi poezii [Letters on Russian poetry]. Compiled by G. M. Fridlender with R. D. Timenchik. Introduction by G. M. Fridlender. Editorial work and notes by R. D. Timenchik. Iz literaturnogo naslediia. Biblioteka “Liubiteliam rossiiskoi slovesnosti.” Moscow: Sovremennik, 45—54, 124—25, 147—48, 164, 165—66.

Reprint of 1910.11, 1911.8, 1912.7, 1913.5, 1913.6 with editorial notes. Several passing references to Ivanov in other essays and reviews from 1908 to 1914 can be traced through the index.

28 IVANOVA, LIDIIA. Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father]. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 428 pp. Reprint. Moscow: RIK “Kul’tura,” 1992.

In Russian. The memoirs of Lidiia Ivanova, the daughter of Ivanov and Zinov’eva-Annibal, cover the author’s recollections of her life with her father from Geneva in 1900 through to the last period of his life in Rome. The book incorporates sections previously published in journals (see 1982.6, 1983.11) and part of 1987.10. The new material is located in the latter sections of the memoirs (part 2, the end of section II and sections III—VI, pp. 174—298). It relates to the years following 1926 and covers Ivanov’s conversion to Catholicism, Lidiia’s musical life in Paris, Dimitrii’s period of convalescence


in Switzerland, Ivanov’s return from Pavia to Rome, his experience of the war, and the last years of his life. The editor has provided an introduction, detailed notes, and a biographical directory of people referred to in the text (no index). The appendix includes Ivanov’s autobiographical letter (1916) and various memoirs and essays on the poet by Berdiaev, Charnyi, Zaitsev, Lidin, Manuilov, Mochalova, Muratov, Gippius, and Stepun (see under individual authors). For an English translation of a section of the memoirs, see Ivanova, 1986.22. For the preface, see Malmstad, 1990.42. For reviews, see Pasternak, 1990.50; Nosov, 1991.31.

29 KOLEROV, M. A., and PLOTNIKOV, N. S., eds. Iz glubiny: Sbornik statei o russkoi revoliutsii [From the depths: A collection of essays on the Russian revolution]. With an introduction and commentaries by M. A. Kolerov and N. S. Plotnikov. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo universiteta. SP “Ost-Vest Korporeishen,” 5—16, 279—80.

In Russian. Reprints P. Struve’s anthology (first published in Moscow and Petrograd: Russkaia mysl’, 1918), including Ivanov’s essay “Nash iazyk” [Our language] (pp. 145—50). The introduction and the notes include discussion of the history of the collection and of Ivanov’s contribution, requested by S. A. Askol’dov in 1918. See also V., N., 1976.19; Granovskaia, 1991.13; Iakovlev, 1991.14.

30 KOTRELEV, NIKOLAI, ed. “Pis’mo Viacheslava Ivanova k Pimenu Karpovu” [A letter from Viacheslav Ivanov to Pimen Karpov]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), 6 April, no. 3822, Literaturnoe prilozhenie, no. 9: xii.

In Russian. Publishes Ivanov’s letter of 26 November — 1 December 1910 to P. Karpov, prefaced by introductory comments on the relevance of the document to contemporary Russian debates on the intelligentsia’s right to speak for the people. In the letter Ivanov outlines his reasons for not wishing to publish Karpov’s verse, based on his fundamental disagreement with the author’s stand on social and religious issues. Reprinted in an expanded version and with additional materials: 1991.19.

31 KOTRELEV, N. V. “Materialy k istorii serii ‘Pamiatniki mirovoi literatury’ izdatel’stva M. i S. Sabashnikovykh: Perevody Viach. Ivanova iz drevnegrecheskikh lirikov, Eskhila, Petrarki” [Materials for a history of the series “Monuments of world literature” of the publishing-house of M. and S. Sabashnikov: Viach. Ivanov’s translations of ancient Greek lyrics, of Aeschylus and Petrarch]. In Kniga v sisteme mezhdunarodnykh kul’turnykh sviazei: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [The book in the system of international cultural links: An anthology of scholarly essays]. Edited by N. V. Kotrelev. Moscow: Vsesoiuznaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka inostrannoi literatury, 127—50.

In Russian. Reconstructs the detailed history of Ivanov’s translations for


the “Monuments of world literature” series of the Sabashnikov publishing house: his translations of Greek lyrics for a projected volume edited by V. O. Nilender, of Alcaeus and Sappho (published in 1914), Aeschylus, and Petrarch (published in 1915). Traces the involvement of figures such as Zelinskii and Gershenzon. Draws on extensive archival materials (correspondence and contracts), and publishes several letters to and from Ivanov connected with his translation projects. Most of the material relates to the years 1911—1913. Includes details of Ivanov’s projected translations for the earlier “World literature” series of the Panteon publishing house. See also Panina, 1972.15; Davidson, 1982.3; Sabashnikov, 1983.25. The section on Ivanov’s translations of Aeschylus incorporates part of Kotrelev, 1989.37.

32 KROKHINA, N. P. “Mifopoetizm A. Bloka v kontekste simvolistskogo mifomyshleniia” [The mythopoeticism of A. Blok in the context of symbolist mythic thought], Izvestiia Akademii nauk SSSR, Seriia literatury i iazyka, 49, no. 6 (November — December): 515—26.

In Russian. Considers the principal myths of Blok’s poetic world, outlining six key areas, and relating these to two distinct approaches: Ivanov’s Dionysiac cult of memory, death, and resurrection, and Belyi’s Christian apocalyticism. Summarizes Ivanov’s aesthetics of myth-creation and traces reminiscences of its influence on Blok’s poetry.

33 KUZNETSOVA, O. A. “Diskussiia o sostoianii russkogo simvolizma v ‘Obshchestve revnitelei khudozhestvennogo slova’: Obsuzhdenie doklada Viach. Ivanova” [The debate on the state of Russian symbolism at the “Society of lovers of the artistic word”: The discussion of Viach. Ivanov’s lecture]. Russkaia literatura, no. 1: 200—07.

In Russian. Provides a detailed survey of the responses to Ivanov’s talk on symbolism, given on 26 March in St. Petersburg at the “Society of lovers of the artistic word” (attached to the editorial offices of Apollon). Ivanov’s talk was the basis of his subsequent essay “Zavety simvolizma” [The precepts of symbolism] (1910). The reconstruction of the discussion is based on Ivanov’s three-page note of the comments on his talk and his drafted responses (an archival document preserved in IRLI), and also draws on related correspondence. The article outlines the responses of eleven discussants: S. Rafalovich, N. Gumilev, N. Nedobrovo, A. Kondrat’ev, S. Siunnerberg, V. Gippius, S. Gorodetskii, V. Zhirmunskii, Iu. Verkhovskii, A. Terk, and S. Makovskii. The main trends of the argument are summarized, including points relevant to the Acmeist response to the symbolist legacy (Gumilev and Gorodetskii).

34 LANGER, GUDRUN. Kunst — Wissenschaft — Utopie; die “Überwindung der Kulturkrise “ bei V. Ivanov, A. Blok, A. Belyj und V. Chlebnikov. Frankfurter


wissenschaftliche Beiträge, Kulturwissenschaftliche Reihe, 19. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 17—28, 74—147, 411—14

In German. Investigates the question of the relationship of art, knowledge, and analytic thinking to the claims of salvation or utopia. The second chapter is entirely devoted to a consideration of Ivanov’s view of art as an organic process and its relation to the crisis of culture. Points to the relative consistency of Ivanov’s views while noting two phases; the first, for which Dionysus is the emblem, concerns itself with “art as a means of knowledge, the development of culture and typology of culture, and the view of mythopoesis as the goal of symbolism”; the second, for which Eros and Logos are the central symbols, emphasizes more clearly the cosmological, anthropological, and salvation role of art. References to Ivanov can be traced through the index.

35 LAVROV, A., and TIMENCHIK, R., eds. Izbrannye proizvedeniia [Selected works], by M. Kuzmin. Leningrad: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 507, 519—20, 521, 522.

In Russian. The notes to this edition of Kuzmin’s poems and prose works include comments on his relations with Ivanov, on his works dedicated to Ivanov and references to him and to Vera Shvarsalon in his poems. Also discusses Ivanov’s poem and essay on Kuzmin and his exchange of sonnets with Verkhovskii. See also Malmstad, 1977.6; Cheron, 1986.6.

36 LIDIN, VLADIMIR. “Viacheslav Ivanov.” In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 336—41.

Reprint of 1965.5.

37 LINDGREN, NELLI. “Simvol Materi-Zemli u Viacheslava Ivanova i Dostoevskogo” [The symbol of Mother-Earth in Viacheslav Ivanov and Dostoevskii]. Canadian-American Slavic Studies 24, no. 3 (Fall): 311—22.

In Russian. Traces the sources of Ivanov’s symbol of Mother Earth in the novels of Dostoevskii and in Ivanov’s interpretative essays on Dostoevskii. Relates the image to Ivanov’s idea of descent and ascent and to his Dionysian-Christian worldview. Analyzes the function of the image in two poems from Kormchie zvezdy [Pilot stars]: “Perst’” [Earth] and “Zemlia” [Earth].

38 LOSEV, A. F. “Iz knigi ‘Teorii stilia’: Modernizm i sovremennye emu techeniia” [From the book “Theories of style”: Modernism and contemporary trends]. Edited by A. A. Takho-Godi. In Kontekst: Literaturno-teoreticheskie issledovaniia. 1990 [Context: Literary and theoretical investigations. 1990]. Edited by A. V. Mikhailov. Moscow: Nauka, 25—54.

In Russian. Includes a few paragraphs (pp. 38—39) on Ivanov’s essay “Manera, litso i stil’” [Manner, personality and style] (1912), singled out for comment as a significant statement of the symbolist period on style. Outlines


Ivanov’s argument, notes his links with German terminology and occasional lack of clarity. See also Losev, 1976.11, 1985.10, 1989.41, 1990.38; Rostovtsev, 1989.51.

39 LOSEV, A. F. “V poiskakh smysla: Iz besed i vospominanii” [In search of meaning: Extracts from conversations and reminiscences]. In Strast’ k dialektike: Literaturnye razmyshleniia filosofa [A passion for dialectics: Literary reflections of a philosopher]. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 14—68.

Reprint of 1985.10 with minor changes.

40 LUKNITSKAIA, VERA. Nikolai Gumilev: Zhizn’ poeta po materialam domashnego arkhiva sem’i Luknitskykh [Nikolai Gumilev: A life of the poet based on materials from the private archive of the Luknitskii family]. Leningrad: Lenizdat, 72—73, 74, 83—84, 90, 94—95, 97, 98, 104—06, 111, 114, 115—16, 123, 127, 131—34.

In Russian. Luknitskaia has assembled extracts from the diaries of Luknitskii, together with brief commentaries and a few other sources including letters from Gumilev. These materials are grouped together by year of coverage to produce a chronological account of Gumilev’s life. The account includes several passing references to Ivanov in the period 1909—1912. Mentions their exchange of sonnets, Ivanov’s support of Gumilev at the time of his duel with Voloshin, Gumilev’s reading of “Bludnyi syn” [The prodigal son] at the tower, Akhmatova’s reception by Ivanov, responses to Ivanov’s essay “Zavety simvolizma” [The precepts of symbolism] (1910) and the ensuing debate over symbolism.

41 ŁUŻNY, RYSZARD. “Wiaczesława Iwanowa “Opowieść o Światomirze” —najbardziej słowianofilski utwór najwybitniejszego rosyjskiego okcydentalisty” [Viacheslav Ivanov’s “The tale of tsarevich Svetomir” — the most Slavophile work of an important Russian Westernizer]. In Kultura Wschodu i Zachodu w literaturze rosyjskiej i radzieckiej: Międzynarodwa Konferencja Literaturoznawcza Rusycystów. Opole, 16—17 listopada 1987 g. [Eastern and Western culture in Russian and Soviet literature: An international conference on literature for Slavists. Opole, 16—17 November 1987]. Edited by Telesfor Poźniak and Aleksandra Wieczorek. Opole: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Powstanców Ślaskich w Opolu, 139—48.

In Polish. Reprint in a revised version of part of 1989.42. Examines the title, style, composition, narrative structure, and genre of “Povest’ o Svetomire tsareviche” [The tale of tsarevich Svetomir].

42 MALMSTAD, JOHN. Preface to Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 5—10.

In Russian. Introduces the memoirs of Lidiia Ivanova (see 1990.28).


Emphasizes the need to restore Ivanov to his rightful status as a poet, comments on the value of the memoirs and their striking use of memorable detail, and notes the warm and caring spirit of their author.

43 MANDEL’sHTAM, NADEZHDA. Vtoraia kniga [The second book]. Edited and with a preface by M. K. (К.М.?) Polivanov. Moscow: Moskovskii rabochii, passim.

Reprint of 1972.13 with notes and an index.

44 MANDEL’sHTAM, OSIP. Kamen’ [Stone]. Edited by L. Ia. Ginzburg, A. G. Mets, S. V. Vasilenko, and Iu. L. Freidin. Literaturnye pamiatniki. Leningrad: Nauka, 205—11, 238, 241—47, 251—54, 256, 262, 277, 279, 283, 287, 290, 307, 309, 310, 316—21, 331—34, 336, 337, 340—47, 351, 356, 357, 359—63, 366—68.

In Russian. The supplementary materials and appendices include several items related to Ivanov (references are indexed). Reprints with detailed commentaries Mandel’shtam’s letters to Ivanov of 1909—1911 and the text of the poems he enclosed (for first publications of the letters, see Mandel’shtam, 1971.7 and Morozov, 1973.8; for an English translation, see Mandelstam, 1979.10). The diary and correspondence of Kablukov contain references to Ivanov together with the first publication of a note from Mandel’shtam to Ivanov sent via Kablukov and of a letter from Kablukov to Ivanov of 6 March 1916 (this section is an expanded version with notes of Morozov, 1979.13, 1991.29). The essay by A. G. Mets on the history of Mandel’shtam’s book mentions Ivanov and his influence on Mandel’shtam, and cites the inscription Mandel’shtam wrote on a copy of Kamen’ presented to Ivanov. The detailed commentaries on Mandel’shtam’s poems, essays, and letters identify several reminiscences of Ivanov’s works and ideas. On Ivanov and Mandel’shtam, see also Myers, 1992.14.

45 MANUILOV, VIKTOR. “O Viacheslave Ivanove” [About Viacheslav Ivanov]. In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 342—60.

In Russian. Publishes Manuilov’s memoirs of Ivanov, based on their meetings in Baku from early spring 1922 until Ivanov’s departure for Italy from Moscow in the summer of 1924. Describes Ivanov’s conversations about his past, the impact of his powerful and original personality, and the group of his students who regularly gathered together in the evenings for poetry readings and discussion. Records his departure from Baku on 28 May 1924 and the summer months he spent in Moscow before emigration, including an account of his reading of his operetta libretto “Liubov’ — Mirazh?” [Love — a mirage?] at the home of the Chulkovs, his visit to Lunacharskii, his speech during the Pushkin celebrations at the Bol’shoi theatre on 6 June 1924, his poetry reading with Maiakovskii at Moscow University, and his farewell visit


to Briusov. Publishes two poems by Manuilov dedicated to Ivanov, and a letter from Ivanov to Manuilov, dated 18 March 1928, Pavia. See also Katanian, 1956.2, 1985.6; Al’tman, 1968.2; Dymshits, 1990.18.

46 MOCHALOVA, OL’GA. “O Viacheslave Ivanove: Iz vospominanii” [About Viacheslav Ivanov: Extracts from memoirs]. In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 361—67.

Reprint of 1978.13.

47 MURATOV, PAVEL. “Viacheslav Ivanov v Rime” [Viacheslav Ivanov in Rome]. In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 368—70.

Reprint of 1926.3.

48 PARNIS, A. E., ed. “Iz tetradi T. V. Tolstoi” [From the notebook of T. V. Tolstaia]. In Vek Pasternaka [Pasternak’s century], Prilozhenie k “Literaturnoi gazete” [Literaturnaia gazeta supplement], February 1990, 8—10.

In Russian. Publishes excerpts from T. V. Tolstaia’s notes on Pasternak (evidently dating from 1927—1928) with two brief references to Ivanov. In the first Tolstaia describes bringing Ivanov a copy of Pasternak’s Sestra moia zhizn’ [My sister life] (1922), and records his comment on its title, relating it to Saint Francis’ statement “Sestra moia — smert’” [My sister is death]. The second reference concerns an anecdote related by Pasternak: while staying at the dacha of Baltrushaitis in 1914, he imitated owls in the garden and subsequently heard Ivanov giving Vera Shvarsalon a learned disquisition couched in rhetorical phrases about the significance of owls in Greece. See Fleishman, 1990.21.

49 PARNIS, A. E. “Khlebnikov v dnevnike M. A. Kuzmina” [Khlebnikov in the diary of M. A. Kuzmin]. In Mikhail Kuzmin i russkaia kul’tura XX veka [Mikhail Kuzmin and Russian culture of the twentieth century]. Tezisy i materialy konferentsii 15—17 maia 1990 g. Edited by G. A. Morev. Leningrad: Sovet po istorii mirovoi kul’tury AN SSSR, Muzei Anny Akhmatovoi v Fontannom Dome, 156—65.

In Russian. Covers Khlebnikov’s links with Ivanov in the period from the end of 1908 when Khlebnikov first entered Ivanov’s circle through to the autumn and winter of 1909 when he took part in the Academy of verse circle attached to Apollon. Includes an extract from the memoirs of Von Guenther about Ivanov’s and Kuzmin’s meeting with Khlebnikov at the tower (see 1969.12). Comments on Khlebnikov’s works connected with Ivanov, “Krymskoe” [The Crimean], written at the end of 1908, partly under the influence of the summer of 1908


spent in the Crimea with Ivanov and Vera Shvarsalon, and “Zverinets” [The menagerie]. Publishes a few extracts from Kuzmin’s diary with passing references to Ivanov. See also Aseev, 1920.1; Khlebnikov, 1940.2; Rayfield, 1966.15; Stepanov, 1975.14; Al’tman, 1985.1; Parnis, 1990.49, 1992.18, 1992.19, 1993.43; Duganov, 1990.17.

50 PASTERNAK, ELIZAVETA. “Viacheslav Ivanov v vospominaniiakh docheri” [Viacheslav Ivanov in the memoirs of his daughter]. In Italiia i slavianskii mir: Sovetsko-italianskii simpozium in honorem Professore Ettore Lo Gatto. Sbornik tezisov [Italy and the Slavonic world: A Soviet-Italian symposium in honour of Professor Ettore Lo Gatto. An anthology of papers]. Edited by N. M. Kurennaia, L. A. Sofronova, and V. A. Khorev. Akademiia nauk SSSR, Institut slavianovedeniia i balkanistiki. Moscow: n.p., 108—13.

In Russian. Reviews Lidiia Ivanova’s book of memoirs (see 1990.28). Comments on Ivanov’s life and on the “inner movement towards simplicity” reflected in the memoirs. See also Nosov, 1991.31.

51 PYMAN, AVRIL. “Russian Poetry and the October Revolution.” Revolutionary Russia 3, no. 1 (June): 41—43.

In the context of a general survey of the response of various Russian poets to the October Revolution, considers Ivanov’s cycle “Pesni smutnogo vremeni” [Songs of the time of troubles] (1917—1918) (pp. 41—43). Although Ivanov was critical of the revolution’s attempt to go forward outside religion, he continued to hope de profundis in the triumph of spiritual values. See also Alianskii, 1967.1; Ueland, 1992.26, 1993.54.

52 ROSENTHAL, BERNICE G. “From Decadence to Christian Renewal: The Parallel Paths of Merezhkovsky and Ivanov.” In Slavic and East European Arts (Stony Brook, NY). Edited by Caryl Emerson and Nicholas Rzhevsky. Vol. 6, no. 2 (Winter): 33—50.

An expanded and revised version of 1988.55, citing examples of the theme of eroticism in Ivanov’s poetry.

53 SARGINA, LUDMILLA. “A szimbolizmus manierizmusa: Vjacseszlav Ivanov” [The mannerism of symbolism: Viacheslav Ivanov]. In Az orosz szimbolizmus természetrajza [The physiology of Russian symbolism]. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 119—24.

In Hungarian. Provides a general outline of Ivanov’s life and literary work, citing a few examples of contemporary critical opinion.

54 SHCHERBAKOVA, O. P. “’Kruchi’ Viach. Ivanova i ’Krushenie gumanizma’ A. Bloka” [Viacheslav Ivanov’s “Steep slopes” and A. Blok’s “Collapse of humanism”] . Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta, Seriia 9, Filologiia, no. 2 (March A pril): 21—27.

In Russian. Contrasts Ivanov’s and Blok’s attitudes to humanism and


culture in the face of the revolution of 1917 on the basis of a comparison of their essays “Kruchi” [Steep slopes] and “Krushenie gumanizma” [The collapse of humanism]. Concludes that while Ivanov’s ideals were utopian and divorced from real life, Blok arrived at a deeper recognition of the historical transformation of social reality through the revolution. See also Ivanova, 1988.27; Giaquinta, 1989.23.

55 SHISHKIN, ANDREI. “Gekzametry Grigoriia Rachinskogo” [Hexameters by Grigorii Rachinskii], Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 3834 (6 July), Literaturnoe prilozhenie no. 10: xii.

In Russian. Includes comments on the relations between the philosopher G. Rachinskii (1859—1939) and Ivanov. Publishes the text of a six-line poem written by Rachinskii on 6 June 1910 on an off-print of his preface to the Russian translation of Nietzsche’s Volia k vlasti [The will-to-power], inscribed to Ivanov.

56 SHISHKIN, ANDREI. “O granitsakh iskusstva u Viach. Ivanova i o. Pavla Florenskogo” [On the boundaries of art in the works of Viach. Ivanov and Father Pavel Florenskii]. Vestnik russkogo khristianskogo dvizheniia, no. 160: 118—40.

In Russian. Considers the relationship of Florenskii and Ivanov from their first meeting in 1904 through to occasional references after Ivanov’s emigration in 1924. Outlines the view of the creative process described in Ivanov’s essay “O granitsakh iskusstva” [On the boundaries of art] (1914) and publishes the text of Florenskii’s letter of 1 April 1914, commenting on the essay (sent to him in March by Ivanov) and suggesting that Ivanov should write a book on the phenomenology of artistic creation. Traces two lines of influence of Ivanov’s essay on the writings of Florenskii. Publishes as appendices various materials related to Ivanov, including Florenskii’s letter to his daughter, written from a labor camp in August 1935, describing Ivanov as a rare combination of genius and talent who will always remain a poet for the few as his poetry is also philosophy. See Florenskii, 1990.22; Shishkin, 1993.49.

57 STEPUN, F. “Viacheslav Ivanov.” In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 373—89.

Reprint of 1936.5.

58 TERRAS, VICTOR. “The Metaphysics of the Novel-Tragedy: Dostoevsky and Viacheslav Ivanov.” In Russianness: Studies on a Nation’s Identity. In Honor of Rufus Mathewson, 1918—1978. Edited by Robert L. Belknap. Studies of the Harriman Institute. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 153—65.

Compares Dostoevskii and Ivanov in the light of their relation to Western thought with reference to Schelling, Nietzsche, and Hegel. Shows


Dostoevskii’s debt to Western aesthetics and demonstrates how Greek, Nietzschean, and Ivanovian concepts of tragedy apply to his major works. Finds Dostoevskii’s chief heroes insufficiently pagan to bear the weight of real tragedy and sets his metaphysic in the tradition of hellenized Christianity. On Dostoevskii and Ivanov, see Golenishchev-Kutuzov, 1935.4; Ghidini, 1990.24, 1993.23; Jackson, 1989.29, 1993.30. See also Terras, 1983.26, 1984.26, 1986.51, 1993.53.

59 VOLOSHIN, MAKSIMILIAN. Putnik po vselennym [A traveller through universes]. Compiled and edited by V. P. Kupchenko and Z. D. Davydova. Moscow: Sovetskaia Rossiia, 184—86.

Reprint of 1907.20.

60 WACHTEL, MICHAEL ALEX. “Goethe and Novalis in the Life and Work of Vyacheslav Ivanov.” Ph.D dissertation, Harvard University, 252 pp.

The first chapter is devoted to Ivanov’s reception of Goethe; it explores various aspects of Ivanov’s use of intertextuality with particular emphasis on Faust II, the most important Goethean text for Ivanov. The second chapter focuses on Ivanov’s reading of Novalis. Using materials from Ivanov’s diaries, poetry, and translations, it demonstrates the close links between biography and literature that were characteristic of the Symbolist period. Ivanov’s reception of two lyric poems by Novalis, first through translation and then in his own original poetry, is also traced. The final chapter concentrates on metrical semantics, offering detailed analyses of Ivanov’s renditions of Novalis’s “Hymns to the Night,” and of Ivanov’s use of various metrical forms and semantic changes in his versions. See Dissertation Abstracts International 51/12:4113A. On Ivanov and Novalis, see Etkind, 1988.21, 1990.20. See also Wachtel, 1991.45.

61 WACHTEL, M. “Iz perepiski V. I. Ivanova s A. D. Skaldinym” [From the correspondence of V. I. Ivanov and A. D. Skaldin]. Minuvshee: Istoricheskii al’manakh (Paris), no. 10: 121—41.

In Russian. Publishes three letters from Ivanov to Skaldin (1885—1943), written in October and November 1912. The letters discuss the details of the publication of Nezhnaia taina [Tender mystery] (overseen by Skaldin) and report on Ivanov’s visit to Belyi and Steiner in Switzerland. They include Ivanov’s detailed comments on poems from his collection and his views on freemasonry and rosicrucianism. The letters are preceded by an introductory article surveying Ivanov’s relations with Skaldin, and followed by extensive notes. Fragments from Skaldin’s letters to Ivanov are also included in the commentary. See also Carlson, 1988.10.

62 WOŹNIAK, ANNA. “Kultura i żywioł: Wiaczesława Iwanowa koncepcja kultury” [Culture and the elements: Viacheslav Ivanov’s concept of culture].


In Literatura rosyjska i jej kulturowe konteksty [Russian literature and its cultural contexts]. Edited by Ryszard Łużny. Prace Komisji Słowianoznawstwa, 48. Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk, 141—48.

In Polish. Reconstructs Ivanov’s model of culture, drawing on his essays. Views it as a mystic structure, based on folk culture and pagan belief, with its central point in symbolic art, and its highest point in the mystic church and collective religion. In this model a dual order always operates: from the natural elements to culture, and from culture to the natural elements.

63 ZAITSEV, BORIS. “Viacheslav Ivanov.” In Vospominaniia: Kniga ob ottse [Memoirs: A book about my father], by Lidiia Ivanova. Edited and annotated by John Malmstad. Paris: Atheneum, 330—36.

Reprint of 1963.14.

64 ZELINSKII, VLADIMIR [Władimir Zielinski]. “Kraj wygnania czy ziemia obiecana?: Zapomniany spór o kulturę” [A land of exile or the promised land?: A forgotten debate about culture]. Translated by Katarzy na Krzyżewska. Znak (Kraków), no. 417/18 (2/3): 41—51.

A Polish translation of 1989.66. See also Burdziej, 1990.12.