1 AVERINTSEV, S. S. Introduction to Stikhotvoreniia i poemy [Poems and longer verse]. Compiled, edited, and annotated by R. E. Pomirchii. Biblioteka poeta. Malaia seriia. Leningrad: Sovetskii pisatel’, 5—62. Reprint. 1978.

In Russian. The introduction to the first Soviet edition of Ivanov’s verse and translations is substantially the same as Averintsev’s earlier essay (1975.1). Some of the sections are in a different order; a new opening and a brief concluding section on Ivanov’s activity as a translator have been introduced, and the notes are omitted. See also Pomirchii, 1976.16, Tschöpl, 1986.53.

2 CHUKOVSKAIA, LIDIIA. Zapiski ob Anne Akhmatovoi [Notes on Anna Akhmatova]. Vol. 1: 1938—1941. Paris: YMCA-PRESS, 46, 68—69, 120, 156—57, 166. Reprint. Moscow: Kniga, 1989.

In Russian. Akhmatova’s scattered comments on Ivanov are recorded in Chukovskaia’s memoirs of their conversations. The entry of 27 September 1939 records Akhmatova’s recollections of Briusov’s and Gumilev’s views of Ivanov, and her description of Ivanov as a “brilliant, superbly educated man, extremely subtle and wise.” The entry of 8 February 1940 gives her impressions of Ivanov’s salon at the tower and her readings there, characterizing


Ivanov as somebody who, like Voloshin but more subtly, “loved seducing people.” The entry of 8 June 1940 notes Akhmatova’s recollection of her verse being praised at Ivanov’s tower while attempts were made to distance her from Gumilev. The entry of 19 August 1940 describes her reading Po zvezdam [By the stars], praising the collection for its revelations and foresight (“he understood everything and anticipated it all”), while criticizing his poetry for its listless rhythm. The entry of 5 September 1940 notes Ivanov’s attitude to homosexual themes in Kuzmin’s poetry. For the second volume of these memoirs see Chukovskaia, 1980.3.

3 DOBUZHINSKII, M. V. “Vstrechi s pisateliami i poetami” [Meetings with writers and poets]. In Vospominaniia [Memoirs]. Vol. 1. New York: Put’ Zhizni, 375—89.

Reprint of 1945.1.

4 ELSWORTH, JOHN. “Andrei Bely’s Theory of Symbolism.” In Studies in Twentieth Century Russian Literature: Five Essays. Edited by Christopher J. Barnes. Edinburgh and London: Scottish Academic Press, 17—45.

Reprint of 1975.5.

5 GRECHISHKIN, S. S., KOTRELEV N. V., and LAVROV A. V., eds. “Perepiska s Viacheslavom Ivanovym (1903—1923)” [Correspondence with Viacheslav Ivanov (1903—1923)]. In Literaturnoe nasledstvo [Literary heritage]. Edited by V. R. Shcherbina. Vol. 85: Valerii Briusov. Moscow: Nauka, 428—545.

In Russian. An introductory essay provides a detailed account of the history of Briusov’s relations with Ivanov (pp. 428—34). Publishes ninety-eight letters from the correspondence of Briusov and Ivanov (written between 1903 and 1923, thirty-five from Briusov, sixty-three from Ivanov), including poems exchanged by the correspondents, and followed by notes. The letters trace Ivanov’s work for Vesy, include several references to Zinov’eva-Annibal’s work, and reflect the opinions of both correspondents on their own and on each other’s literary development. The appendices publish a review by Ivanov (written no later than November 1903) of Briusov’s collection Urbi et Orbi, and two letters from Ivanov to I. M. Briusova from Rome (19 October 1924, 30 November 1924), written after receiving the news of Briusov’s death. Further references to Ivanov in other sections of the volume can be traced through the index. For an earlier discussion of the contents of this correspondence in relation to Vesy, see Malcovati, 1974.5.

6 IVASK, IURII. Review of Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works], Vol. 2. Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 122: 253—56.

In Russian. Reviews the second volume of the collected works (1974). Assesses Ivanov’s poetry; recognizes its difficulty and abstract character, but


argues nevertheless for its value and emotional content. Admires the dynamism of the love poetry in Cor Ardens. Comments on the predominant lack of objective description in his verse, although it contains some striking images. History made a mockery of Ivanov’s Utopian dreams. Disputes the notion that Ivanov identified Christ and Dionysus: he turned to Dionysus under the influence of Nietzsche out of a sense (received from V. Solov’ev) that nature was not fully revealed in Christianity. Defends Ivanov against the charges of synthesis and “soglashatel’stvo” [compromise], leveled at him by Berdiaev, Blok and Belyi. See also Ivask, 1973.7, 1983.13.

7 KASACK, WOLFGANG. “Ivanov, Vjaceslav Ivanovic.” In Lexicon der russischen literatur ab 1917. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner, 150—51.

In German. A brief entry on Ivanov’s life and works with a short bibliography of primary and secondary literature. For updated, expanded versions of this entry in subsequent English, Russian, and German editions, see Kasack, 1988.30, 1988.31, 1992.7.

8 LANE, A. M. “Nietzsche in Russian Thought. 1890—1912.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 627 pp.

Includes a section dealing with Nietzsche’s impact on the aesthetic theories and writing of Ivanov, considered alongside Merezhkovskii, Belyi, Blok, and others. See Dissertation Abstracts International 37/07A:4543-A. See also Rosenthal, 1986.42; Stammler, 1986.47; Clowes, 1988.12.

9 LAVROV, A. V., ed. “Viacheslav Ivanov: Pis’ma k F. Sologubu i An. N. Chebotarevskoi” [Viacheslav Ivanov: Letters to F. Sologub and An. N. Chebotarevskaia]. In Ezhegodnik rukopisnogo otdela Pushkinskogo Doma na 1974 god [The year-book of the manuscripts section of Pushkinskii dom for 1974]. Leningrad: Nauka, 136—50.

In Russian. An essay on Ivanov’s relations with Sologub introduces the publication of eight letters from him to Sologub and his wife, An. N. Chebotarevskaia, written between 1906 and 1922, and followed by extensive notes including much archival material. The introduction includes details of copies of Ivanov’s books with inscriptions to Sologub, lists the evening gatherings at Sologub’s home attended by Ivanov, and comments on Sologub’s essay on mystical anarchism (1906.9) and the poems exchanged by the two poets. The letters cover a wide range of topics, including Ivanov’s and Sologub’s joint lectures on symbolism in St. Petersburg in January 1914, Ivanov’s stay with Sologub in 1915, and his advice to Sologub to travel abroad in 1922. See also Calebich Creazza, 1992.3.

10 LO GATTO, ETTORE. I miei incontri con la Russia. Milan: Mursia, 67—76.

In Italian. A personal memoir of Lo Gatto’s meetings with Ivanov in Italy, with particular reference to the period of three or four years when Ivanov


regularly helped him with his Italian verse translation of Pushkin’s Evgenii Onegin, completed in 1936 and published in 1937 with an introduction by Ivanov. Recalls some of Ivanov’s suggested translations and pays tribute to his inspiring influence and mastery of translation. Relates their conversations about Pushkin, Dostoevskii, and V. Solov’ev, and Ivanov’s defense of baroque elements in his verse. See also Lo Gatto, 1966.7; Ivanov, 1980.7.

11 LOSEV, A. F. Problema simvola i realisticheskoe iskusstvo [The problem of the symbol and realist art]. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 282—87, 330—32.

In Russian. The seventh chapter is devoted to images of Prometheus in world literature and includes a section on Ivanov’s presentation of the myth in his tragedy Prometei [Prometheus] (1919) as a symbol of the defeat of absolute individualism. New features of his treatment of the theme include the emphasis on its cosmic dimension (as in classical antiquity and Shelley) and the suggestion of a metaphysical solution to the problem of titanism through hints at the Dionysian aspect of the myth. The tragedy is limited to an account of Prometheus’s downfall without the triumph of Dionysus. Repudiates Nusinov’s view (1937.6) of Ivanov’s Prometheus as counterrevolutionary and anti-Soviet. The bibliography (pp. 330—32) cites sections of Ivanov’s essays of 1912 on symbolism, “Mysli o simvolizme” [Thoughts on symbolism] and “Manera, litso i stil’” [Manner, personality and style]. See also Briusov, 1920.3; Losev, 1985.10, 1989.41, 1990.38, 1990.39; Rostovtsev, 1989.51.

12 MEIERKHOL’D, V. E. Perepiska. 1896—1939 [Correspondence. 1896—1939]. Compiled by V. P. Korshunova and M. M. Sitkovetskaia. Introductory essay by Iu.A. Zavadskii. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 58—59, 94, 103, 114—15, 122, 129, 130, 162, 180, 183, 184, 204.

In Russian. Publishes letters from Meierkhol’d to Ivanov of 15 May 1907, 25 July 1908, 11 February 1910, 25 April 1910, 17 February 1914, and 29 June 1916, followed by notes. Meierkhol’d hopes Ivanov will complete his translation of the Oresteia by the winter of 1908 and return again to Prometheus, requests him to review Briusov’s tragedy “Protesilai umershii” [Protesilaus deceased], and comments on his reading of Borozdy i mezhi [Furrows and boundaries]. Several references to Ivanov occur in letters to other correspondents such as Briusov, Verigina, Komissarzhevskaia (on his wish to stage Zinov’eva-Annibal’s play ‘Pevuchii osel’ [The singing ass]) and Ul’ianov (about his 1920 portrait of Ivanov). Further passing references to Ivanov can be traced through the index. See Meierkhol’d, 1908.9.

13 NIVAT, GEORGES. “Viacheslav Ivanov. Sobranie sochinenii” [Viacheslav Ivanov. Collected works]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 3086, 15 January, 9.

In Russian. Reviews the second volume of Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works] (1974). Praises the organic principle governing the organization of the volumes and pays tribute to the edition. Considers Ivanov’s philosophy


of two-way temporal causality in “Son Melampa” [The dream of Melampus]. Interprets the suffering and confessions of the diaries as an expression of the struggle of Ivanov the Christian with Ivanov the gnostic theurgist. Ivanov’s failure to create a national poetry derives from the fact that his “tonality” was out of tune with the epoch, his world was that of the ode, not of tragedy (see Averintsev, 1975.1).

14 OLSON, SUSAN M. B. “The View of Man in the Poetry of Vjačeslav Ivanov.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 275 pp.

Examines persistent themes in the worldview of Ivanov as he presents it in his poetic images and elucidates it in his essays. Investigates his vision of man, couched in mythological terms, its relation to Dionysus and Christ as redeemer figures, and the sources of his admiration for past culture and paganism. See Dissertation Abstracts International 37/01A:368A.

15 ORLOV, VL. “Minuvshii den’: Poety nachala veka [A bygone era: Poets of the beginning of the century]. In Pereput’ia: Iz istorii russkoi poezii nachala XX veka [Crossroads: On the history of Russian poetry of the beginning of the twentieth century]. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 7—178.

In Russian. The fifth section of this essay (pp. 62—70), dated 1966, is devoted to Ivanov. Several other comments on Ivanov’s aesthetics are scattered throughout the essay. Presents a rather negative view of Ivanov, regarded as a cold, impersonal, and obscure poet, with a negligible long-term influence. Outlines his biography and symbolist aesthetics. Underlines the hermetic and scholarly character of his poetry. Singles out a few poems for their lyricism (“Iz dalei dalekikh” [From distant lands], “Mednyi vsadnik” [The bronze horseman], “Menada” [The maenad]), praises his sonnets, and dwells on his civic verse. Condemns his poetry for having failed to adapt to the movement of history.

16 POMIRCHII, R. E. “Primechaniia” [Notes]; “Slovar’” [Glossary]. In Stikhotvoreniia i poemy [Poems and longer verse]. Introductory article by S. S. Averintsev. Compiled, edited, and annotated by R. E. Pomirchii. Biblioteka poeta. Malaia seriia. Leningrad: Sovetskii pisatel’, 447—517, 518—40. Reprint. 1978.

In Russian. The first Soviet edition of Ivanov’s works contains a selection of poems from all his collections, including Svet vechernii [Vespertine light], the full text of Mladenchestvo [Infancy], translations from Italian (Leopardi, Petrarch, Michelangelo), from Greek (Bacchylides, Alcaeus, Sappho), from English (Byron), from French (Baudelaire), from German (Novalis), from Armenian (Ioannisian, Tumanian, Isaakian), from Latvian (Auseklis, Aspasia), from Finnish (Manninen), and versions and imitations of Tatar and Bashkir songs. The poetry section also includes works published


from manuscript versions and uncollected poems from journals; poems from the collections have in some cases been checked against archival versions. Within the three sections (poems, longer verse, translations) a chronological order has been followed. The notes draw on the commentaries of Svet vechernii [Vespertine light] (1962.3) and Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works] (1971.3, 1974.1), but omit details of first publications. The glossary includes some archaisms as well as mythological, biblical, and geographical references. For the introduction to this volume, see Averintsev, 1976.1. For a review see Tschöpl, 1986.53.

17 RUDNEV, ALEKSEJ. “Nota introduttiva: ‘Al convito di Platone in tempo di peste’.” In Corrispondenza da un angolo all’altro: Dodici lettere russe, by Vjač. Ivanov and M. Geršenzon. Propilei russi 2. Milan: La Casa di Matriona, 5—33.

In Italian. The essay (dated Moscow, 1976) introduces a reprint of the Italian translation (1932) of Perepiska iz dvukh uglov [A correspondence from two corners]. Characterizes the positions of the two correspondents and relates the significance of the debate to the status of culture after Auschwitz and the Gulag archipelago.

18 TARANOVSKY, KIRIL. “Bees and Wasps: Mandel’štam and Vjačeslav Ivanov.” In Essays on Mandel’štam. Harvard Slavic Studies, 6. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 83—114, 161—68.

A reworked and expanded English-language version of 1967.8, incorporating the supplementary note of 1969.11.

19 V., N. “Viacheslav Ivanov — o russkom iazyke” [Viacheslav Ivanov on the Russian language]. Grani, no. 102 (October — December): 147—54.

In Russian. Introduces the “first” publication of two fragments of an essay by Ivanov on language from the archive of Pushkinskii dom (IRLI). The introduction emphasizes the religious and national aspects of Ivanov’s view of the Russian language as a sacred medium, and is followed by the publication of the two fragments. Although N. V. presents these as published for the first time, in fact they correspond to the first three sections (in draft form) of Ivanov’s essay “Nash iazyk” [Our language], first published in 1918. For a discussion of Ivanov’s concept of language, see Venclova, 1986.54. For reprints of Ivanov’s essay with notes, see Kolerov, 1990.29; Granovskaia, 1991.13; Iakovlev, 1991.14.

20 WEST, JAMES. “The Poetic Landscape of the Russian Symbolists.” In Studies in Twentieth Century Russian Literature: Five Essays. Edited by Christopher J. Barnes. Edinburgh and London: Scottish Academic Press, 1—16.

Reprint of 1975.15.