1 BACHTIN, NICHOLAS. “The Symbolist Movement in Russia.” In Lectures and Essays. Birmingham: University of Birmingham, 34—44.

Bachtin (1896—1950), a classicist taught by Zelinskii in St. Petersburg, lectured at the University of Birmingham from 1935 and evidently composed his lecture on Russian symbolism around 1934. It includes two pages on Ivanov (pp. 41—42), set in the context of Russian symbolism and its aspirations, and highly rated as poet, philosopher, and scholar. Refers to personal impressions: Ivanov was “above all a great personality... in contact with whom none could escape the overwhelming feeling of some superhuman and quasi-divine presence... for myself, the evening when Ivanov read us his translation of the Oresteia remains the most intense and decisive experience of my life.”


2 BAKHTIN, M. Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo [Issues in the poetics of Dostoevskii]. Second edition, revised and expanded. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 12—14.

Revised text of 1929.1 (only minor changes in the section on Ivanov). For English translations see 1973.1 and 1984.1. On Bakhtin and Ivanov, see Bakhtin, 1979.2; Clark and Holquist, 1984.4; Crone, 1988.13; Kotrelev, 1988.35; Igeta, 1989.26; Jackson, 1989.29; Szilard, 1989.55, 1993.52; Salma, 1992.23; Grabar, 1993.26; Iovanovich, 1993.27; Terras, 1993.53.

3 BEL’CHIKOV, N. F., and VOLKOV, A. A. Tsentral’nyi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv literatury i iskusstva SSSR: Putevoditel’. Literatura [Central state archive of literature and art of the USSR: A guide. Literature]. Moscow: Glavnoe arkhivnoe upravlenie pri Sovete Ministrov SSSR, 207—08 and passim.

In Russian. A short description of the holdings of the Ivanov archive in TsGALI (sixty manuscripts, letters to L. Lur’e, R. Shor and others, photographs). References to further materials related to Ivanov held in other collections of the archive can be traced through the index.

4 BLOK, ALEKSANDR. Sobranie sochinenii v vos’mi tomakh [Collected works in eight volumes]. Edited by V. N. Orlov, A. A. Surkov, and K. I. Chukovskii. Vol. 7: Avtobiografiia, 1915. Dnevniki, 1901—1921 [Autobiography, 1915. Diaries, 1901—1921]. Edited by Vl. Orlov. Moscow and Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo khudozhestvennoi literatury, passim.

A considerably expanded, annotated text of Blok’s diaries, first published in 1928.1, 1928.2. Most of the references to Ivanov fall within the period from 1911 to 1913 and concern Blok’s generally favorable impressions of his works and complex response to his personality and to his influence on Gumilev and Gorodetskii. Mentions of Ivanov in Blok’s diaries can be traced through the general index in vol. 8 (1963.5).

5 BLOK, ALEKSANDR. Sobranie sochinenii v vos’mi tomakh [Collected works in eight volumes]. Edited by V. N. Orlov, A. A. Surkov, and K. I. Chukovskii. Vol. 8: Pis’ma: 1898—1921 [Letters: 1898—1921]. Edited by M. I. Dikman. Moscow and Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo khudozhestvennoi literatury, passim.

In Russian. References to Ivanov in Blok’s letters can be traced through the general index to the collected works, included in this volume. Ivanov’s name crops up regularly in letters written between 1904 and 1912 to a wide range of correspondents, including Belyi (most frequently), Blok’s mother, Chulkov, Ellis, Gurevich, E. Ivanov, Krivich, Piast, S. Solov’ev, and Znosko-Borovskii. Blok expresses varied feelings for Ivanov, ranging from initial closeness to extreme “‘anti-Viach. Ivanovstvo’” [anti Viach. Ivanovism];


comments on his talk on symbolism (1910.5) and Merezhkovskii’s response (1910.15); criticizes Ivanov’s contribution to the first issue of Trudy i dni. The letters are followed by extensive notes. For earlier editions of Blok’s letters, see 1925.1, 1927.1, 1932.1, 1940.1.

6 BOGUSLAVSKII, A. O., and DIEV, V. A. Russkaia sovetskaia dramaturgiia: Osnovnye problemy razvitiia. 1917—1935 [Russian Soviet drama: Major issues in its development. 1917—1935]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii nauk SSSR, 20—21.

In Russian. Includes a brief discussion of Ivanov and Evreinov as “representatives of Russian decadence,” “far in essence from communism and hostile to it.” Considers Ivanov’s work for TEO, the theatrical section of Narkompros, and his unsuccessful attempt to transpose his concept of collective drama to the theatre of the new age. Refers to his talk on the future development of the theatre, delivered after a speech by Lenin warning against false imitations of proletarian culture at the first Russian congress on adult education in May 1919 (see 1919.3).

7 FRANK, V. S., ed. “Perepiska S. L. Franka s Viach. Ivanovym” [The correspondence of S. L. Frank and Viach. Ivanov]. Mosty (Munich), no. 10: 357—69.

In Russian. Publishes two letters from Frank to Ivanov (dated 7 May 1947 and 17 June 1947) and one long letter from Ivanov to Frank (dated 18 May — 3 June 1947), prefaced by a brief introduction and accompanied by notes. The correspondence arose in connection with Frank’s anthology of Russian philosophical thought (planned in 1947, eventually published in 1965), to which Ivanov contributed his essay “Anima” (1935). The correspondence centers on a detailed discussion of the ecumenical union of the churches. Ivanov defends certain tenets of the Catholic faith that Frank cannot accept (the role of the church and the infallibility of the Pope), gives his view of Protestantism, and describes his teaching and editorial activities at Ponteficio Istituto Orientale and Collegio Russicum. He sends Frank two poems of 1944 from “Rimskii dnevnik” [Roman diary] and an extended autobiographical note with details of his publications. See Frank, 1965.2.

8 Literaturnoe nasledstvo [Literary heritage]. Vol. 70: Gor’kii i sovetskie pisateli: Neizdannaia perepiska [Gor’kii and Soviet writers: Unpublished correspondence]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii nauk SSSR, 213—14, 346—47, 515—18.

In Russian. The publication of the correspondence of Gor’kii and P. S. Kogan (1872—1932) includes two letters concerned with Ivanov. On 7 March 1929 Gor’kii writes to Kogan, inquiring about the possibility of Akademiia publishing Ivanov’s translation of Dante’s Inferno or his work on Aeschylus as a means of providing him with material support (see Davidson, 1983.6). On


4 April 1929 Kogan replies, mentioning his earlier fruitless endeavors to secure Ivanov a pension. On 15 May 1927 Gor’kii writes to Prishvin, linking Gershenzon’s “anti-Christian” rejection of culture in Perepiska iz dvukh uglov [A correspondence from two corners] to the positions of Rozanov and Blok. On 4 March 1927 Fedin corresponds with Gor’kii about a projected Leningrad journal Minuvshie dni, to be edited by Gor’kii, Ivanov, F. Braun and Ol’denburg. See also Koretskaia, 1989.32.

9 MURATOVA, K. D., ed. “Ivanov Viacheslav Ivanovich.” In Istoriia russkoi literatury kontsa XIX — nachala XX veka: Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’ [A history of Russian literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century: A bibliographical guide]. Moscow and Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo Akademii nauk SSSR, 243—45.

In Russian. The entry on Ivanov provides a short bibliography of primary works (thirteen items, books, and letters), and a more extensive bibliography of secondary literature (fifty-two items). Only Russian language sources are included. Several further bibliographical items relating to Ivanov can be traced through the index. See also Muratova, 1993.38.

10 ORLOV, VL. “Istoriia odnoi ‘druzhby-vrazhdy’” [The history of a “friendship-enmity”] . In Puti i sud’by: Literaturnye ocherki [Paths and fates: Literary essays]. Leningrad: Sovetskii pisatel’, 446—578.

Reprint from 1940.3. Reprinted: 1971.10.

11 OZEROV, LEV. “Tainy remesla: O poezii Anny Akhmatovoi” [Secrets of the craft: On the poetry of Anna Akhmatova]. In Rabota poeta: Kniga statei [The work of the poet: A book of essays]. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 193—94.

In Russian. Quotes a prose fragment from manuscript in which Anna Akhmatova attributes to Ivanov the responsibility for spreading a false view of herself as the pupil of Kuzmin. Reprinted: 1968.1. For an English translation, see Akhmatova, 1992.1. See also Chukovskaia, 1980.3.

12 R[ODINA], T. “Ivanov, Viacheslav Ivanovich.” In Teatral’naia entsiklopediia [Theatrical encylopedia]. Edited by P. A. Markov. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaia entsiklopediia, 828—29.

In Russian. A short entry on Ivanov’s plays and theory of drama.

13 STEPUN, FEDOR. “Vjačeslav Ivanovs Lehre vom realistischen (religiösen) und idealistischen Symbolismus.” Die Welt der Slaven, Year 8, no. 3 (November): 225—33.

In German. Incorporates elements of Stepun’s earlier work (1933.16, 1934.4, 1936.5). Reprinted with minor changes as the section on symbolism in 1964.8.


14 ZAITSEV, BOR[IS]. “Dalekoe: O Viach. Ivanove” [The distant past: On Viach. Ivanov]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 2049, 19 September, 2—3.

In Russian. Relates memoirs of Ivanov based on their meetings from 1905 to 1949. Describes an early visit from Ivanov and Zinov’eva-Annibal in Moscow in 1905, later visits to St. Petersburg, staying at the home of Chulkov, and visiting the tower. Emphasizes the masculine appeal of Ivanov’s verse and his role as teacher and “maître.” Retains an impression of “well-meaning tutorship” from Ivanov’s analysis of Zaitsev’s works. Found the mannered theatricality of the gatherings at the tower off-putting. Describes Ivanov in Moscow after the war and revolution and his move to Baku and Italy. Zaitsev’s account of his last visit to Ivanov in Rome on Good Friday, 1949 takes up elements of his earlier obituary article (1949.22), and relates Ivanov’s enthusiastic account of his latest work, “Povest’ o Svetomire-tsareviche” [The tale of tsarevich Svetomir]. Reprinted 1964.9 (with minor stylistic changes); 1965.8 (with no changes); 1989.65; 1990.63.