1 ADAMOVICH, GEORGII. “Viacheslav Ivanov i Lev Shestov” [Viacheslav Ivanov and Lev Shestov]. In Odinochestvo i svoboda [Solitude and freedom]. New York: Izdatel’stvo im. Chekhova, 251—70.

In Russian. The first part of this essay deals with Ivanov (pp. 251—60) and is a slightly expanded version of 1949.1 with minor stylistic changes and a few additions, such as an anecdote about Ivanov spotting a change Gumilev had made to a poem by Kuz’mina-Karavaeva. The second part of the essay on Shestov opens with comments on Ivanov’s view of him; their polemics were obliquely reflected in Perepiska iz dvukh uglov [A correspondence from two corners] (pp. 261—62).

2 GOFMAN, M. L. “Peterburgskie vospominaniia” [Petersburg memoirs]. Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 43: 120—33.

In Russian. Memoirs of Ivanov, focusing on the period of their “great friendship” from their first meeting in 1906 until their break in 1910. Includes vivid   portraits of Blok (who referred to Viacheslav Ivanov as


“Iazykachesanov,” to Prozrachnost’ [Transparency] as “Nevzrachnost’” and to Zinov’eva-Annibal’s Tragicheskii zverinets [Tragic menagerie] as “Tavricheskii gostinets”), Gorodetskii (who introduced Gofman to Ivanov), Zinov’eva-Annibal, and Ivanov. Evokes daily life at the tower, the Wednesday gatherings, and visitors such as Belyi, Bunin, Zaitsev, Remizov, Kuzmin, and Verkhovskii. Describes reading “every line” of his book Sobornyi individualizm [Collective individualism] (1907.13) to Ivanov, and Ivanov’s detailed explanations to him of poems from Kormchie zvezdy [Pilot stars] and comments on Gofman’s verse. Notes Ivanov’s enthusiastic involvement in the preparation of Gofman’s book on modern Russian poetry (1909.11). Describes his work as secretary of the “Ory” publishing house, and the scandal over Remizov’s story Limonar’: Lug dukhovnyi [Limonarium: A spiritual meadow]. Records tension over Vera Shvarsalon (whom Gofman wished to marry in 1909) and their disagreement over the state of symbolism, leading to their break after a decisive meeting in 1910. They met again in 1921 but were no longer close. See also Gofman, 1907.13, 1909.10, 1909.11, 1934.2.

3 MAKOVSKII, SERGEI. “Viacheslav Ivanov.” In Portrety sovremennikov [Portraits of contemporaries]. New York: Izdatel’stvo imeni Chekhova, 271—310.

Reprint of 1952.8 and 1952.9 as one continuous article.

4 MANDEL’sHTAM, OSIP. Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works]. Edited and with introductory essays by G. P. Struve and B. A. Filippov. New York: Izdatel’stvo imeni Chekhova, 327—28, 349.

In Russian. The first edition of Mandel’shtam’s collected works includes two essays with brief references to Ivanov. “Vypad” [The slump] (1924) deplores the “monstrous ingratitude” of posterity to Ivanov, whose “dense gospel” crowned the “tribal poetry” of Symbolism. “O prirode slova” [On the nature of the word] (1922) pays tribute to Ivanov’s influence on the formation of Acmeist theory. Both essays were included in Mandel’shtam’s O poezii [On poetry] (Leningrad: Academia, 1928); however, the second part of the reference to Ivanov in “Vypad” [The slump] was cut in this edition. Reprinted: 1966.8; 1971.7; 1987.17. For an English translation, see Mandelstam, 1979.10.

5 MOCHUL’sKII, K. Andrei Belyi. Paris: YMCA-PRESS, 102—04, 135—36, 178—79, 251, 277—78, 291 and passim.

In Russian. Covers various aspects of Belyi’s relations with Ivanov, such as his polemical attacks on mystical anarchism, and his involvement with theosophy, Anna Mintslova, and Ivanov during the period of his residence at the tower in 1910. Quotes Ivanov’s views on Belyi’s novel Peterburg [Petersburg] from “Vdokhnovenie uzhasa: O romane Andreia Belogo ‘Peterburg’” [The inspiration of terror: On Andrei Belyi’s novel


Petersburg] (1916). Condemns Belyi’s pamphlet on Ivanov (1922.1): “This high-flown treacherous essay remains a dark blemish on the memory of Andrei Belyi.”

6 ORLOV, VL. “Novoe ob Aleksandre Bloke” [New materials on Aleksandr Blok]. Novyi mir, no. 11 (November): 150—62.

In Russian. A short section of this article (pp. 154—55) quotes Blok’s notes, jotted in the margin of Ivanov’s essay “Mysli o simvolizme” [Thoughts on symbolism] (1912). His comments include “Hell, this is tedious, he’s lying, this is dead!,” and underlining the word “earthly” in Ivanov’s statement that “it is characteristic of true symbolism to depict the earthly rather than the heavenly.”

7 POGORELOVA, B. “’skorpion’ i ‘Vesy’” [“Skorpion” and Vesy]. Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 40: 168—78.

In Russian. Includes a brief description (p. 176) of Ivanov and Zinov’eva-Annibal visiting the offices of the Skorpion publishing house, and a reference to S. A. Poliakov recommending to Briusov that he should publish Ivanov’s essay “Vagner i Dionisovo deistvo” [Wagner and the Dionysian act] (1905).

8 TERAPIANO, Iu. “Sonety Viacheslava Ivanova” [The sonnets of Viacheslav Ivanov]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 814, 29 October, 4—5.

In Russian. Comments on recent essays about Ivanov, published after a long period of oblivion, citing Gippius (1938.3), Makovskii (1955.3), and Adamovich (1955.1). Criticizes Ivanov’s preface to I. N. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, Pamiat’ [Memory] (Paris: Parabola, 1935, 5—14), sensing that behind the verbose imagery lay a desire to despatch an unwanted disciple. Reviews the collection of Ivanov’s sonnets, published with an essay by Deschartes (1954.1). Quotes the twelfth sonnet of “Zimnie sonety” [Winter sonnets], the third of “De profundis amavi,” and the final one of “Rimskie sonety” [Roman sonnets], reserving special praise for the first cycle.

9 TYRKOVA-VIL’IAMS, ARIADNA. “Teni minuvshego: Vokrug bashni” [Shadows of the past: Around the tower]. Vozrozhdenie (Paris), no. 41 (May): 78—91.

In Russian. Memoirs (with several factual errors) of Ivanov and his circle based on the author’s visits to the tower. Describes life at the tower, Zinov’eva-Annibal, poetry readings given by Kuzmin, Gorodetskii, Sologub, Ivanov, Blok, and Akhmatova, and disputations with Zelinskii. Praises Valentina Shchegoleva’s reading of “Menada” [The maenad], the “regimental song” of the tower. Cites A. Gol’shtein’s view that Ivanov practised black magic. Portrays his influence on younger poets as destructive, and regards him as anti-Christian in spirit, covering up a deadening inner spiritual vacuum with the illusions of learning. Conveys her sense of distaste and pity at her last meeting with Ivanov and Vera.


10 WITTKOWSKI, VICTOR. Afterword to Das alte Wahre: Essays, by Wjatscheslaw Iwanow. Edited and with an afterword by Victor Wittkowski. Bibliothek Suhrkamp, 24. Berlin and Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, n.d., 185—96.

In German. The editor’s afterword to a collection of seven essays by Ivanov in German opens with an explanation of Goethe’s term “das alte Wahre,” chosen as the title of the collection. Emphasizes the difficulty of categorizing Ivanov’s works. Suggests that in contrast to Goethe’s pagan humanism, Ivanov displays a Christian humanism. Discusses his view of Christ, and finds that a unity of Dionysus and Apollo as well as a synthesis of east and west has been achieved in his writings.