1 BERDIAEV, NIKOLAI. Russkaia ideia: Osnovnye problemy russkoi mysli XIX veka i nachala XX veka [The Russian idea: Fundamental issues of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Russian thought]. Paris: YMCA-PRESS, 234—35, 247. Reprint. Paris: YMCA-PRESS, 1971.

In Russian. The final, tenth chapter of this work deals with early twentieth-century Russian culture and includes a short section on Russian symbolism and Ivanov. Outlines Ivanov’s role, emphasizing his learning, many-sided syncretic universalism (evocative of Renaissance culture), and brilliance as a conversationalist as well as writer. Takes the view that Ivanov remained true to himself through several changes of ideas. Likens him to Merezhkovskii in his attempt to achieve a synthesis of paganism and Christianity. Regards the Dionysian theme in his poetry as more intellectual than instinctive. Comments on his interest in the occult and in the Rosicrucian movement. For an English translation see 1947.1.

2 BUBNOFF, NICOLAI V[ON]. Foreword to Briefwechsel zwischen zwei Zimmerwinkeln, by M. Gerschenson and W. Iwanow. Translated and with a foreword by Nicolai von Bubnoff. Schriften zur Humanität II. Band. Frankfurt am Main: Siegel-Verlag, Otto Müller, 5—12.

In German. An abridged version of 1927.3, reprinted as the foreword to Bubnoff s translation of Perepiska iz dvukh uglov [A correspondence from two corners] and Ivanov’s letter to Charles Du Bos. Reprinted with no changes as an afterword: 1948.1.

3 ERENBURG, IL‘IA. [Ilja Ehrenburg]. “Wetscheslaw Iwanowitsch Iwanow.” Translated into German by Johannes von Guenther. Die Fähre (Munich), Year 1, no. 9: 541—43.

A German translation of 1922.6, appended to a translation of “Zimnie sonety” [Winter sonnets] into German by Johannes von Guenther (pp. 536—41).

4 KÜFFERLE, RINALDO. Preface to L’Uomo, by Venceslao Ivanov. Translated in verse by Rinaldo Küfferle. Milan: Fratelli Bocca, 7—14.

In Italian. Outlines the four stages of the spiritual path of man’s relation to God covered in Ivanov’s melopoeia Chelovek [Man] (1939). The translation is based on the 1939 text, with subsequent “notable modifications” introduced by Ivanov in the course of work on the Italian version of the poem. Comments on aspects of the translation, such as the use of Latinisms to render Slavonic archaisms, and the sacrifice of rhyme apart from in the epilogue. Dedicates the translation to Fabio Padoa. For a history of this translation and related correspondence see Malcovati, 1986.32, 1989.45, 1993.35. For the translator’s memoirs of his visit to Ivanov in Pavia, see Küfferle, 1931.3.


5 TKHORZHEVSKII, IVAN. Russkaia literatura [Russian literature]. Paris: Izdatel’stvo “Vozrozhdenie,” 473—74.

In Russian. Includes a brief section on Ivanov. He only wrote two or three successful poems; he used difficult forms and obscure language and had no creative talent. Although he saw himself as a tragic Tantalus figure, a more fitting symbol would be that of a cow without horns in a laurel wreath (this concluding phrase was omitted from the second edition of 1950).