1 BELYI, ANDREI. Mezhdu dvukh revoliutsii [Between two revolutions]. Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo pisatelei v Leningrade, passim. Reprint. Chicago: Russian Study Series, 60, Russian Language Specialties, 1966.

In Russian. Memoirs with scattered references to Ivanov. Criticizes the cult of the erotic in works by Ivanov, Zinov’eva-Annibal, and Kuzmin. Describes his struggle with Ivanov’s theory of metaphysical realism in 1908, and his relations with the journals Zolotoe runo, Vesy, and Pereval. Comments on his “troika” relationship with Ivanov and Anna Mintslova and on his dealings with Metner, Ivanov, and Blok. Describes his readings of his novel Peterburg [Petersburg] at Ivanov’s flat. Reprinted with an introduction and notes: 1990.4.

2 GOFMAN, M. [M. Hofmann]. Histoire de la littérature russe depuis les origines jusqu’à nos jours. Bibliothèque historique. Paris: Payot, 642—44.

In French. Devotes a few pages to Ivanov. Despite his immense influence on his contemporaries, he remained a stranger among the symbolists. Hofmann finds Kormchie zvezdy [Pilot stars] too erudite, Prozrachnost’ [Transparency] much more appealing, and reserves his greatest praises for Eros, from which he quotes “Nishch i svetel” [Poor and radiant] in a French translation (“Assoupi


dans le crépuscule, le jour pâlissant...”). Quotes from Piast 1909.19, translated into French. See also Gofman, 1907.13, 1909.10, 1909.11, 1955.2.

3 HILCKMAN, ANTON. Hochland (Munich), no. 10 (July): 379—83.

In German. An untitled general biographical essay containing various inaccuracies. States that Ivanov’s stature as a great thinker with a mission to fulfil is becoming increasingly clear, as demonstrated by the recent issue of Il Convegno (1933) devoted to Ivanov. Draws on the essays from this journal by Zelinskii (1933.18) and Deschartes (1933.5), and concludes with an account of his conversion. The same issue of Höchland also contains Ivanov’s essay “Humanismus und Religion: Zum religionsgeschichtlichen Nachlass von Wilamowitz.”

4 STEPUN, F. “Wjatscheslaw Iwanow. Eine Porträtstudie.” Höchland (Munich), no. 4 (January): 350—61.

In German. A rounded portrait of Ivanov, divided into four sections. The first deals with the cultural and political milieu in which Ivanov began to shape the symbolist movement in Russia. The second section describes Ivanov the man, emphasizing his multifaceted talents and wide-ranging knowledge. The third section dwells on his thought with particular reference to his theory of art and symbolism, analyzed from a philosophical and religious point of view, and related to the ideas of Spengler and Paul Tillich. The fourth section discusses Ivanov the poet, viewing his path as one of ascent, like Petrarch, led by love. Sees “Chelovek” [Man] and “Rimskie sonety” [Roman sonnets] as among his supreme achievements. Prefers to avoid discussion of what he regards as some of Ivanov’s mistaken ideas, and concludes with the hope that Ivanov’s path will serve as a guide toward the spiritual resurrection of Russia. An Italian translation of this essay appeared in Il Convegno (1933.16) and was reprinted in 1958.5. An adapted Russian version was published in Sovremennnye zapiski (1936.5), reprinted in Stepun’s book Vstrechi [Encounters] (1962.9), with a preface by Fridlender in 1989.54 and appended to Lidiia Ivanova’s memoirs (1990.57). See also Stepun, 1963.13, 1964.8.