Preface    ix


In the course of research on Ivanov during the late 1970s and 1980s, I became increasingly aware of the problems caused by the lack of a basic infrastructure for studies in the field: in the absence of a comprehensive bibliography of works by Ivanov or about him, each scholar was obliged to begin work almost from square one, navigating a path through the literature and building up a new set of references. At that time it was my fervent and constant wish that somebody would one day undertake this clearly essential but undoubtedly onerous task. The wish remained unfulfilled and, a number of years later, somewhat to my surprise, I found myself embarking on the task. During the last four years’ work on the bibliography, the need for such a reference work has been brought home to me even more forcibly. In the course of surveying criticism on Ivanov I have come across numerous examples of critics and scholars writing on closely related or even identical topics, often with little or no awareness of existing studies on the subject. I hope therefore that the present guide will serve as a valuable and constructive research tool as well as providing stimulus to the further study of Ivanov.

The scope and organization of the guide follows the format adopted by the G. K. Hall series of Reference Guides to Literature. The preliminary materials (a preface, acknowledgements, an introduction, and a chronological listing of major works by Ivanov) are followed by the main body of the work, a bibliography of works of critical literature about Ivanov. Access to the secondary bibliography is provided through two separate author and subject indexes.

The introduction provides a brief outline of Ivanov’s life and works and seeks to establish the major periods and trends that characterize the evolution of his literary reputation during the twentieth century. The list of selected writings by Ivanov comprises approximately 150 items, arranged in chronological order; it concentrates on works that appeared in book form (whether original or in translation) and on major essays published in the periodical press. Translations of major works into English have been indicated wherever possible. For reasons of space, various categories of publications have been excluded; it has not been possible to include miscellaneous poems in journals and anthologies, reviews, works translated or edited by Ivanov, and most translations of his works into other languages. Works by Ivanov included in this list are referred to in the secondary bibliography by title


only, followed by the year of publication in brackets (full bibliographical details of works mentioned in the secondary bibliography but not included in this list are provided in the annotations).

The secondary bibliography covers critical literature on Ivanov published over a period of ninety-one years between 1903 and 1993. In keeping with the usual format of the series, it comprises some 1,300 items, arranged chronologically according to year of publication and listed alphabetically within each year. Each item is given a full bibliographical description, followed by a brief summary of its contents. The annotations are descriptive rather than evaluative; they provide an indication of the content and approach of the item. Materials that are new or original are given more emphasis in this description than those that are already familiar. This arrangement is designed to enable the user to form an overall picture of the main trends in the development of Ivanov criticism throughout the century, to situate any particular work of criticism within the context of its time, and to judge whether a particular item is likely to contain relevant information.

The bibliography of writings about Ivanov is of necessity selective. Although it does not aim to be comprehensive, it does attempt to be reasonably representative of a range of trends within different periods and draws on a variety of different source materials, including occasional parodies, articles of journalism, reports from the press on public events and lectures, as well as on the more conventional categories of contemporary reviews and works of academic criticism. In order to keep within the parameters specified by the series, a large number of possible entries had to be discarded. In determining the final selection, the following objectives were borne in mind:

1. to give a broad picture of different tendencies within the full chronological span, reflecting the varied approaches of Western and Russian critics (including both Soviet and émigré writers)

2. to cover criticism from a range of different countries and cultures. Criticism in over ten different languages is represented (the dominant languages are Russian [58 percent] and English [24 percent], followed by Italian [7 percent], German [4 percent], French [2 percent], Polish [2 percent], and with a few items in Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Lithuanian, and Serbian [accounting for the remaining 3 percent])

3. to give preference to items containing significant ideas or original archival materials (even if not of great length)

4. to retain as many comments on Ivanov by contemporary writers as possible (even when relatively brief).

The secondary bibliography does not include publications of items by Ivanov unless there is a significant element of accompanying critical or editorial comment. Ph.D dissertations have only been included when they are either solely devoted to Ivanov or include substantial chapters or sections on him.

With the exception of only two entries (marked by an asterisk preceding the entry number in the text), all items included in both the primary and the secondary bibliographies have been verified de visu. Work on the bibliography revealed that a large number of inaccurate, misleading, or entirely false references have accumulated


over the years in existing bibliographies and works of criticism; the present work seeks to eliminate the further spread of such errors.

The index is divided into two parts. The index of authors covers all the writers whose works are listed in the secondary bibliography. The index of subjects includes significant references to individuals, to titles of works, and to particular themes treated in the items listed in the secondary bibliography. References are not by page but by year and entry number within the year.

The system of transliteration follows that of the Library of Congress, with the omission of diacritics. However, different systems of transliteration adopted in the titles of published works listed in the guide have not been modified. To aid readers who may not have a background in Slavic studies, all titles in Russian and East European languages are followed by a translation, and the place of publication of journals and newspapers has been given wherever possible.

I hope to maintain this bibliography on a regular basis, perhaps in the form of an annual bulletin, and also to publish in due course a full bibliography of works by Ivanov. I would be grateful if interested scholars working in the field would kindly send me details of new publications or of items recommended for addition to the existing list.

School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London October 1994