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Доклад  А. Шишкина "Рим и римский локус Вяч. Иванова" 28 апреля 2021 г. 

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geMPV1Ucios&ab_channel=pietrochichkine

 

Андрей Белый в квартире Вяч. Иванова в Риме на Авентинском холме (доклад, видео)

[доступно на:] https://youtu.be/RilWkq0Tm7I?t=9097

1986

1986

1 AKHMATOVA, ANNA. Sochineniia [Works]. Vol. 2, Proza. Perevody [Prose. Translations]. Edited by E. G. Gershtein, L. A. Mandrykina, V. A. Chernykh, and N. N. Glen. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 233, 235, 256, 257.

In Russian. Reprints the second item in 1968.1, and includes some additional Akhmatova materials related to Ivanov. The ballet libretto of 1962 for “Poema bez geroia” [Poem without a hero] (first published by Liamkina, 1978.9) includes references to Ivanov’s tower and to his appearance at a masquerade as Faust. In “Iz dnevnika” [From my diary], dated 24 December 1959, Akhmatova records remembering Ivanov’s words when she read her poems at his home in 1910. For an English translation of these items, see Akhmatova, 1992.1. See also Akhmatova, 1983.1, 1989.1, 1989.2.

2 ANGELINI, CESARE. “Poeta russo a Pavia.” In Vjačeslav Ivanov a Pavia. Edited by Fausto Malcovati, n.p., 13—17.

Reprint of 1966.1.

3 ANSCHUETZ, CAROL. “Ivanov and Bely’s Petersburg.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 209—19.

Analyzes Ivanov’s influence on Belyi with particular reference to the themes and structure of Peterburg [Petersburg]. Argues that the novel’s “cogency, if not its power, derives from a vision of Hellenic culture which Ivanov imparted to the younger poet.... Bely’s association with Ivanov led him to draw analogies between Hellenic and Russian culture that parallel the analogies between Hellenic and German culture in The Birth of Tragedy.” Relates Belyi’s parallel between Petersburg and Atlantis to Ivanov’s portrayal of Atlantis in his essay “Drevnii uzhas” [Ancient terror] (1909). Also comments on the influence of Ivanov’s essay “Dostoevskii i roman-tragediia” [Dostoevskii and the novel-tragedy] (1911) on Belyi’s understanding of the mythopoetic possibilities of the novel, viewed as an epic tragedy.

4 AVERINTSEV, SERGEY. “The Poetry of Vyacheslav Ivanov.” Translated by Suzanne Fusso. In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 25—48.

Investigates the nature of symbolism in Ivanov’s verse, “a poetry in which the symbol is not a decorative attribute that creates ‘atmosphere,’ but the foundation on which the edifice is erected.” Distinguishes between Ivanov’s theoretical statements on symbolism and his poetic practice. Finds in his verse a “closed system of symbols” with fixed symbolic chains and paired

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oppositions of symbols. Contrasts the stability of his system with those of Blok and Belyi, subject to change and self-irony. For the Russian version of this essay, see Averintsev, 1989.4.

5 BASKINA, IRINA. “‘Teplo v cherte magicheskogo kruga’: Voprosy iskusstva na simpoziume po Viacheslavu Ivanovu” [“Warm within the boundary of the magic circle”: Art at the symposium on Viacheslav Ivanov]. Russkaia mysl’, no. 3646, 7 November, 12.

In Russian. Outlines the talks related to art given at the third international symposium on Ivanov, held at the University of Pavia in September 1986 (on Ivanov and icons, Čiurlonis, Scriabin). Describes the compositions by Leslie Jackson on the “Winter sonnets,” exhibited at the symposium.

6 BLINOV, VALERY N. “Chronology of the Life and Works of Vyacheslav I. Ivanov.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 415—74.

Outlines Ivanov’s life and creative development year by year, incorporating several quotations from his works, from contemporary memoirs and from Deschartes’s biographical essay (1971.3).

7 BLINOV, V., and RUDICH, V. “Lidiia Ivanova.” Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 162 (March): 279—83.

In Russian. An obituary of Lidiia Ivanova (28.4.1896—8.7.1985). Reviews her musical studies and career with details of performances of her compositions in Europe and an assessment of her place in musical history. Describes her last composition, completed shortly before her death, a “religious mystery” opera based on Calderón’s seventeenth-century comedy performed at the tower in 1910 in Bal’mont’s translation, Poklonenie krestu [Worship of the cross]. Comments on the characteristic features of her memoirs of Ivanov and on her personal combination of all-embracing culture with “magnificent human simplicity.” See also Ivanov, 1985.5; Ivanova, 1990.28.

8 BOGDANOV, V. A. “Samokritika simvolizma: Iz istorii problemy sootnosheniia idei i obraza” [The auto-criticism of symbolism: On an aspect of the history of the problem of the relationship between the idea and the image]. In Kontekst: 1984 [Context: 1984]. Edited by N. K. Gei. Moscow: Nauka, 164—94.

In Russian. Considers the symbolists’ critical views of their own aspirations and of the possibility of the realization of these goals with particular reference to essays by Ivanov, Briusov, and Belyi. Comments on Ivanov’s theory of realist symbolism, and on the critical opinions of Belyi, Frank (1910.8), and Sologub (1915.8). Outlines Ivanov’s theory of tragedy as a form of sacred mystery.

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9 BOWLT, JOHN E. “M. K. Čiurlonis: His Visual Art.” In Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlonis: Music of the Spheres, by Alfred Erich Senn, John E. Bowlt, and Danute Staškevičius. East European Biography Series, 2. Newtonville. MA: Oriental Research Partners, 40—72.

Discusses the connection between Čiurlonis’s visual art and the symbolists. Cites Ivanov’s comments on Čiurlonis as a visionary painter within the context of symbolist aesthetics from his essay of 1914 on Čiurlonis and the synthesis of the arts (pp. 40—41, 43, 44, 46, 49). See also Bowlt, 1973.2; West, 1975.15; Rannit, 1986.40; Depperman, 1988.16; Jackson, 1993.28.

10 CHERON, GEORGE. “The diary of Mixail Kuzmin, 1905—1906.” Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, no. 17: 391—438.

In Russian (diary and letter only, the introduction and notes are in English). Publishes a section of Kuzmin’s diary, covering the period from 26 August 1905 to 11 June 1906, preceded by an introduction (pp. 391—96) and followed by notes on the text (pp. 424—36) and by the publication of a letter of 24 July 1906 from Ivanov to Kuzmin (pp. 437—38). Kuzmin’s diaries contain frequent references to Ivanov and his tower and to the gatherings of “Kabachok Ganza” [Hafiz’s tavern]. On 12 January 1906 Kuzmin notes Nuvel’s suggestion that he should meet Ivanov. On 18 January he describes his first visit and an evening at the tower. In April 1906 he describes Somov painting a portrait of Ivanov. Entries for May 1906 include several accounts of meetings of the Hafiz circle (its members dressed up in various costumes, drank wine, danced, exchanged kisses, and discussed literary works). Notes Ivanov’s plan to write a novel in prose, “Severnyi Gafiz” [Northern Hafiz]. Ivanov’s letter to Kuzmin develops his understanding of Kuzmin’s inner nature and expresses the hope that he will soon recover his inner harmony and balance. For further materials on Ivanov and Kuzmin see Malmstad, 1977.6; Suvorova, 1981.22; Barnstead, 1982.1; Bogomolov, 1988.6, 1990.9, 1991.2, 1993.8; Lavrov and Timenchik, 1990.35.

11 CYMBORSKA-LEBODA, MARIA. “K teorii i praktike simvolistskogo ‘novogo teatra’” [On the theory and practice of the symbolist “new theatre”] . In Wokół badań i nauczania literatury rosyjskiej [On the study and teaching of Russian literature]. Edited by M. Dobrogoszcz, T. Kołakowski, and A. Semczuk. Warsaw: Uniwersytet Warszawski, 115—28.

Reprint of 1984.5.

12 CYMBORSKA-LEBODA, MARIA. “W kręgu rosyjskiej refleksji teatralnej początku XX wieku: Wiaczesława Iwanowa i Andrieja Biełego koncepcje misterium” [On Russian theatrical thought of the beginning of the twentieth century: Viacheslav Ivanov’s and Andrei Belyi’s concepts of the mystery]. Roczniki Humanistyczne (Lublin) 34, no. 7:23—42.

In Polish. Considers the problem of genre in the aesthetic theories of

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Ivanov and Belyi with particular reference to the two theoreticians’ differing concepts of the mystery. See also Cymborska-Leboda, 1983.5, 1984.5, 1987.3, 1988.14, 1990.14, 1992.5, 1992.6, 1993.11.

13 DAVIDSON, PAMELA. “Vyacheslav Ivanov and Dante.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 147—61.

Analyzes the sources and forms of Ivanov’s interest in Dante throughout his literary career, as reflected in his verse, his scholarly work, his translations from Dante, and lectures on literature. Argues that his desire to relate Christianity to the religion of Dionysus leads him to invest Dante and medieval Christianity with Dionysiac traits, to merge Eros with Amor. Draws on poems and archival materials to illustrate the argument and relates Ivanov’s interest in Dante to symbolist culture. See also Davidson 1982.3, 1983.6, 1984.6, 1989.15; Asoian, 1988.2, 1989.3, 1990.1; Szilard and Barta, 1989.56; Potthoff, 1991.34.

14 DEDIULIN, SERGEI. “K Tret’emu mezhdunarodnomu simpoziumu, posviashchennomu tvorchestvu Viacheslava Ivanova” [On the third international symposium dedicated to the work of Viacheslav Ivanov]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 3636, 29 August, 10.

In Russian. Comments on a few recent publications related to Ivanov (including Malcovati, 1986.32 and Kobak and Severiukhin, 1986.27) before the opening of the third international symposium on Viacheslav Ivanov, held at the University of Pavia in September 1986. Laments the lack of response to the 120th anniversary of Ivanov’s birth in the Soviet Union.

15 DEDIULIN, SERGEI. “Tretii simpozium po Viacheslavu Ivanovu: Pavia, 2—5 sentiabria 1986” [The third symposium on Viacheslav Ivanov: Pavia, 2—5 September 1986]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 3641, 3 October, 12—13.

In Russian. A general account of the third international symposium on Ivanov introduces a series of statements on the conference and on the significance of Ivanov by various participants (D. Ivanov, Venclova, Iovanovich, Malmstad, Malcovati, Rudich, West, Etkind).

16 ERLICH, VICTOR. “The Symbolist Ambience and Vyacheslav Ivanov.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 14—21.

Considers the legacy of V. Solov’ev in Belyi, Blok, and Ivanov. Traces reflections of Solov’ev’s apocalyptic mood in Belyi and Blok, and of his cultural and religious ecumenicity in Ivanov. Comments on Perepiska iz dvukh

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uglov [A correspondence from two corners] in the light of Ivanov’s fidelity to cultural tradition and cult of memory.

17 FLAKER, ALEKSANDAR. “Viacheslav Ivanov, ’Kochevniki krasoty’” [Viacheslav Ivanov, “Nomads of beauty”] . Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, no. 18: 5—12.

In Russian. Analyzes Ivanov’s poem “Kochevniki krasoty” [Nomads of beauty] as a statement of the poet’s artistic credo. Links it with another poem from the same collection (Prozrachnosť [Transparency], “Nartsiss: Pompeiskaia bronza” [Narcissus: A Pompeian bronze] and with Gide’s description of paradise in “Le Traité du Narcisse” (1891).

18 FOTIEV, CYRIL. “Ivanov’s Letter to Charles du Bos: Confessionalism and Christian Unity.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 358—66.

A slightly abridged English translation of 1981.7.

19 GREEN, MICHAEL. “Viacheslav Ivanov.” In The Russian Symbolist Theatre: An Anthology of Plays and Critical Texts. Edited and translated by Michael Green. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 109—11.

A brief note on Ivanov and his view of drama introduces the author’s translations of two excerpts on the theatre from his essays “Predchuvstviia i predvestiia” [Premonitions and forebodings] (1906) and “O poezii I. F. Annenskogo” [On the poetry of I. F. Annenskii] (1910) (pp. 113—25).

20 GUMILEV, NIKOLAI. Neizdannoe i nesobrannoe [Unpublished and uncollected material]. Compiled and edited, with commentaries by M. Basker and Sh. Graham. Paris: YMCA-PRESS, 96—99, 101—102, 110, 122—27, 228—29, 253—63.

In Russian. Contains various materials related to Ivanov. Publishes letters from Gumilev to Briusov of 30 October 1906, 25 November 1906, 20 May 1912 (pp. 96—99, 101—02, 110) with references to Ivanov. Publishes the text of six letters from Gumilev to Ivanov (1909—1912) (pp. 125—25) with notes on the two poets’ relations and a commentary on the text of the letters (pp. 253—61). Ivanov is also mentioned in Gumilev’s letters of 3 June 1911 to Belyi (p. 126), and of 15 September 1911 to Chulkov (p. 127). For Gumilev’s letters to Briusov, see Gumilev, 1980.5; Graham, 1983.10. For Gumilev’s letters to Ivanov, see Timenchik, 1981.26, 1987.24.

21 HOLTHUSEN, JOHANNES. “Vyacheslav Ivanov’s Cor Ardens and the Esthetics of Symbolism.” Translated by Emily Robin Jackson. In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and

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Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 59—82.

Characterizes Ivanov’s aesthetic of the creative process (understood in terms of the cyclic law of renunciation and restitution) and his aesthetic of literary reception. Regards Cor Ardens as a “grand” poetic cycle, symmetrically organized around its architectural centrepiece, “Eros.” Draws on a wide range of poems from the collection to illustrate the structural and literary functions of symbols. Dwells on Dionysian motifs, the symbolism of sun and heart, parallels with Blok’s Snezhnaia maska [Snow mask], the stylized use of folk rhythms, the poems exchanged by Ivanov and Sologub, Briusov and the concept of mirror reflections in “Speculum speculorum,” snake symbolism, and the philosophy of time in “Son Melampa” [The dream of Melampus].

22 IVANOVA, LYDIA. “Reminiscences.” Translated from Russian by Irina Prehn. In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 393—412.

An English translation of the section of Ivanova’s memoirs dealing with the period at the tower in St. Petersburg (1982.6). See also Ivanova, 1983.11, 1987.10, 1990.28.

23 IVANOV, DMITRI. “Recurrent Motifs in Ivanov’s Works.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 367—89.

Interprets certain recurrent themes in Ivanov’s works in terms of his central spiritual beliefs. Indicates the biographical sources of Ivanov’s poem “Vremia” [Time] and relates the key images of the boat, the river bank, and the sea to the theme of memory in other works by him. Links his scholarly work and study of myth to his religious preoccupations. Comments on his exploration of the “tragically dissociated state of our person” through the inner dialectic between “Anima,” the Soul, and “Animus,” the Mind. Relates these ideas to his work on Dostoevskii and illustrates their reflection in his long poem Chelovek [Man].

24 JACKSON, ROBERT LOUIS. “Ivanov’s Humanism: A Correspondence from Two Corners.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 346—57.

Relates the positions of the two correspondents to the Russian literary tradition. Links Ivanov’s treatment of the problem of individual freedom to that of Dostoevskii. Places Gershenzon in the tradition of nineteenth-century Russian

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Hamlets and Fausts. Traces Ivanov’s changing attitude to the revolution and the proletarian cause; despite a loss of optimism his faith in culture, both national and supranational, as an expression of universal unity, remained undiminished.

25 JACKSON, ROBERT LOUIS. “Vyacheslav Ivanov: An Introduction.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 1—13.

Introduces a collection of twenty-six contributions, the fruits of the first international symposium on Ivanov held at Yale University in 1981 (“a watershed in the development of Ivanov studies”). Asserts that “the importance of Ivanov certainly transcends the limits of the brief Symbolist movement.” Provides a lucid overview of his life and works and traces the fate of his literary reputation from an early “period of renown” through “fifty years of neglect in criticism and scholarship” to the revival of the late 1960s and early 1970s, taking off “in earnest” with the publication of the first volume of the collected works in 1971.

26 KLIMOFF, ALEXIS. “The First Sonnet in Vyacheslav Ivanov’s Roman Cycle.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 122—33.

Locates Ivanov’s cycle “Rimskie sonety” [Roman sonnets] (1924) within the European tradition of addresses to the Eternal City. Provides a detailed interpretative analysis of the first sonnet of the cycle. Relates the device of repetition of “Rim/Roma” [Rome/Roma] in the rhyming scheme of the quatrains to Ivanov’s theory of the function of “zvukoobraz” [sound-image] in poetry. Considers the sonnet’s expression of the theme of time and its transcendence through myth and memory. See also Klimoff, 1974.4; Toporov, 1987.25; Cazzola, 1988.11.

27 KOBAK, A., and SEVERIUKHIN, D. “Studiia u Tavricheskogo” [The studio by Tavricheskii garden]. Smena (Leningrad), no. 117, 22 May, 4.

In Russian. Outlines the early history of the building (no. 35/1 Tavricheskaia ulitsa) in which Ivanov’s “tower” flat (no. 24) was located. Describes the construction of the house in 1903—1904, and the fate of the art school formed in 1906 by E. N. Zvantseva where Bakst and Dobuzhinskii taught, occupying flat no. 23 on the floor below Ivanov’s home. For a fuller account, see Kobak and Severiukhin, 1987.14.

28 KOPEIKIN, ANATOLII. “Poet, filolog, myslitel’” [Poet, philologist, thinker]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 3636, 29 August, 10.

In Russian. Reviews the recent edition of Ivanov’s translations from

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Novalis and essays on Russian literature, Esse, stat’i, perevody [Essays, articles, translations] (1985). Comments on the essays on Dostoevskii, Tolstoi, Pushkin, and Lermontov and on “Nash iazyk” [Our language], included in the volume.

29 KOZHEVNIKOVA, N. A. Slovoupotreblenie v russkoi poezii nachala XX veka [The use of the word in Russian poetry at the beginning of the twentieth century]. Edited by V. P. Grigor’ev. Akademiia nauk SSSR, Institut russkogo iazyka. Moscow: Nauka, 14—15, 115 and passim.

In Russian. Considers the use of the word in the works of a number of poets, including Ivanov. Comments on the multiple meanings of the rose in “Rosarium” or of the snake in “Son Melampa” [The dream of Melampus] and other poems. Discusses the series of metaphors as a principle governing the organization of the text with reference to the example of “Feierverk” [Fireworks].

30 LUKIRSKAIA, K. P., ed. Biblioteka A. A. Bloka: Opisanie [The library of A. A. Blok: A description]. Compiled by O. V. Miller, N. A. Kolobova, and S. Ia. Vovina. Vol. 3. Leningrad: Biblioteka Akademii nauk SSSR, 176, 227, 253, 259, 266.

In Russian. The third volume of the catalogue of the books held in Blok’s library covers foreign books, journals, and unlocated books and contains the index to all three volumes. Includes details of Blok’s reference to Ivanov on a page of Zolotoe runo, his possession of a copy of Borozdy i mezhi [Furrows and boundaries], and of Russian editions of French works by Flaubert, and Romain Rolland and about Renan in which Ivanov participated. For the first and second volumes of the catalogue, see Lukirskaia1984.17, 1985.11.

31 MAKSIMOV, D. Russkie poety nachala veka [Russian poets of the beginning of the century]. Leningrad: Sovetskii pisatel’, 157—58, 202, 208—15, 240—47, 261—67, 348.

In Russian. References to Ivanov occur in two essays, “O mifopoeticheskom nachale v lirike Bloka: Predvaritel’nye zamechaniia” [On the mythopoetic principle in Blok’s lyrics: Preliminary remarks] (1978) and “O romane-poeme Andreia Belogo ‘Peterburg’: K voprosu o katarsise” [On Andrei Belyi’s novel-poem Petersburg: Concerning the question of catharsis] (1984). Relates Blok’s approach to myth to Ivanov’s ideas, comments on reviews of Belyi’s Petersburg including Ivanov’s essay of 1916, “Vdokhnovenie uzhasa” [The inspiration of terror], and discusses Ivanov’s and Belyi’s concept of catharsis.

32 MALCOVATI, FAUSTO, ed. Vjačeslav Ivanov a Pavia. n.p., 64 pp.

In Italian. Various materials by and about Ivanov, related to the Pavia

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period of his life, are contained in this booklet, published to coincide with the third international symposium on Ivanov (University of Pavia, September 1986). Materials from Ivanov’s Rome archive include an extract from Ivanov’s diary of 1924; extracts from his letters to his children (including one in Latin); his letter from Riboldi; his letters to Pellegrini; two letters from Charles Du Bos about the French translation of the Correspondence; letters from De Luca and Papini; letters from Küfferle to Ivanov and Marco Spaini about his translation of Chelovek [Man] (see Küfferle, 1931.3, 1946.4 and Malcovati, 1989.45, 1993.35). Also includes poems by Ivanov, a reprint of Angelini’s memoirs (1966.1), and a reprint of part of the Pope’s speech (1983.15).

33 MALCOVATI, FAUSTO. “The Myth of the Suffering God and the Birth of Greek Tragedy in Ivanov’s Dramatic Theory.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 290—96.

An abridged English version of the chapter on theatre in Malcovati, 1983.21. Outlines Ivanov’s idea of the Dionysian religion in “Ellinskaia religiia stradaiushchego boga” [The Hellenic religion of the suffering god] (1904) and relates it to his theory of drama with special reference to the role of the chorus.

34 MALMSTAD, JOHN E. “Mandelshtam’s ‘silentium’: A Poet’s Response to Ivanov.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 236—52.

Considers the impact of Ivanov on Mandel’shtam. As an example, analyzes “Silentium” (1910), arguing that it is “primarily a response not to Tyutchev or Verlaine, but to Ivanov,” marking “not a polemic but the beginning of a serious dialogue with Ivanov which would become polemical only in later essays.” Reads “Silentium” as a poetic response to the interpretation of Tiutchev’s poem advanced in the first two sections of Ivanov’s essay “Zavety simvolizma” [The precepts of symbolism] (1910). Relates the poem’s connection between Aphrodite and “metaphysical music” to Ivanov’s earlier essay “Simvolika esteticheskikh nachal” [The symbolism of aesthetic principles] (1905) and to his poem “Muzyka” [Music] from Kormchie zvezdy [Pilot stars].

35 MARKOV, VLADIMIR. “Vyacheslav Ivanov the Poet: A Tribute and a Reappraisal.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 49—58.

Argues the case for a fresh reappraisal of Ivanov’s poetry, based on love

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as well as respect, and avoiding the clichés of past criticism. Singles out for comment his poem “Taormina,” and lists a number of his most memorable lyrics. Defines the essence of his concerns as “the language of the gods,” and comments on the gulf separating him from the dominant trend toward the vulgarization of poetry during the Soviet period. Underlines the “affirmative character” of his poetry, his sophisticated use of language, and varied excellence as a poet. Outlines some of the principal aspects of his work likely to play an important role in his rediscovery. Incorporates parts of Markov, 1972.14. See also Markov, 1981.13.

36 NELSON, LOWRY, Jr. “Translatio Lauri: Ivanov’s Translations of Petrarch.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 162—89.

Considers Ivanov’s translations of Petrarch’s sonnets (published in 1915) on the basis of a broad comparison of both writers’ poetics. Finds Ivanov’s style more learned and his tonal range broader than Petrarch’s. Focuses on seven examples, Ivanov’s versions of sonnets 156 and 199 (“intriguing failures of fidelity”), of sonnet 336 (an authentic artistic “triumph”), of sonnets 190, 285, and 364 (a “notable dissonance of tone”), and of sonnet 312 (“a true chiming of both poets”). Includes the original texts and Ivanov’s translations of the seven sonnets discussed. Nelson’s translations of Ivanov’s nine “Rimskie sonety” [Roman sonnets] are also included in the volume (pp. 134—43). See also Fisher, 1915.4; Mureddu, 1981.15, 1984.20; Balašov, 1988.3; Tomashevskii, 1989.60; Venclova, 1991.42.

37 PARNIS, ALEKSANDR. “Novoe o Khlebnikove” [New materials on Khlebnikov]. Daugava (Riga), no. 7 (July): 106—13.

In Russian. Describes the personal and creative relations of Ivanov and Khlebnikov in 1908—1909 and 1913. Comments on their poetic dialogue in the summer of 1909 in Ivanov’s poem “Podsteregateliu” [To the watchful one] and Khlebnikov’s reply, “Zverinets” [The menagerie], later echoed in Ivanov’s autobiographical poem Mladenchestvo [Infancy]. See also Aseev, 1920.1; Khlebnikov, 1940.2; Rayfield, 1966.15; Stepanov, 1975.14; Al’tman, 1985.1; Parnis, 1990.49, 1992.18, 1992.19, 1993.43; Duganov, 1990.17.

38 PETERSON, RONALD E. The Russian Symbolists: An Anthology of Critical and Theoretical Writings. Edited and translated by Ronald E. Peterson. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 127—74, 181—88, 215—19.

Contains translations of Ivanov’s essays “Zavety simvolizma” [The precepts of symbolism] (1910) and “Mysli o simvolizme” [Thoughts on symbolism] (1912), and of essays related to Ivanov by Annenskii (1909.3), Belyi (1910.3), Blok (1910.5), and Briusov (1910.6), followed by notes.

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39 RABINOWITZ, STANLEY, ed. The Noise of Change: Russian Literature and the Critics (1891—1917). Edited and translated by Stanley Rabinowitz. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 25—26, 205—15, 217—47.

Contains translations of Ivanov’s essay “Vdokhnovenie uzhasa” [The inspiration of terror] (1916) on Belyi’s Petersburg and of Zhirmunskii’s essay “Preodolevshie simvolizm” [The successors of symbolism] (1916.23), prefaced by introductory comments and followed by notes.

40 RANNIT, ALEKSIS. “Vyacheslav Ivanov’s Reflective Comprehension of Art: The Poet and Thinker as Critic of Somov, Bakst and Čiurlionis.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 253—72.

Considers Ivanov’s approach to the visual arts in his poetry and in his critical essays. Comments on his two poems to Somov, “Tertsiny k Somovu” [Terzinas to Somov] and “Feierverk” [Fireworks], lists seven other poems on specific paintings, sculptures or architectural buildings, and analyzes his rendering of Baudelaire’s poem “Les Phares” and his poem on the aesthetic relation of form and content “Entelekhiia” [Entelechy]. Also investigates Ivanov’s essays on art, “Kop’e Afiny” [The spear of Athena] (1904), on Bakst’s painting “Drevnii uzhas” [Ancient terror] (1909), and on Čiurlonis and the synthesis of the arts (1914). Describes the latter as a “massive, intellectually powerful, lyrically melodious essay,” establishing new perspectives for the understanding of Čiurlonis’s philosophy of art and elevating it to lofty significance. On Ivanov and Čiurlonis, see also Bowlt, 1973.2; West, 1975.15; Bowlt, 1986.9; Depperman, 1988.16; Jackson, 1993.28.

41 RICHARDSON, WILLIAM. Zolotoe runo and Russian Modernism: 1905—1910. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 71—72, 98, 117—29, 184—87, 218.

Describes Ivanov’s influential contributions to the journal Zolotoe runo. Comments on the debate on mystical anarchism between Chulkov, Belyi (1906.1), Blok (1907.5), Filosofov (1907.10), and Kogan (1907.17). Outlines the role of Genrikh Tasteven, the managing editor responsible for French translations in the journal. The bibliography includes a list of Ivanov’s contributions to the journal. See also Bialik, 1984.3.

42 ROSENTHAL, BERNICE GLATZER, ed. Introduction to Nietzsche in Russia. Edited by Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 3—48.

Includes comments (pp. 19—24, 45—16 and passim) on Ivanov’s interpretation of Nietzsche and on the influence of his views on his contemporaries with reference to the doctrine of mystical anarchism, the theory of the theatre, and the role of the tragic chorus. Further references to Ivanov and Nietzsche

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in relation to Scriabin and Blok can be found in other essays in the volume and traced through the index. On Ivanov and Nietzsche, see Lane, 1976.8; Stammler, 1986.47; Clowes, 1988.12.

43 RUDICH, VASILY. “Vyacheslav Ivanov and Classical Antiquity.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 275—89.

Outlines Ivanov’s scholarly work on classical antiquity and its place within the European tradition of research on mythology and religion. Considers the reasons for his disinclination to pursue the study of Roman history. Summarizes the basic propositions of his work on the religion of Dionysus and its sources (1904, 1905, and 1923). Finds that “the range and the quality of Ivanov’s achievements in the history of religion and in the study of religious psychology are astonishing,” and that he “would have acquired an international reputation matching that of Kerenyi or Eliade,” had his works not remained inaccessible to most Western European colleagues through an unfortunate series of accidents. Considers his attitude to culture as the cult of memory and reflections of this approach in his verse. Comments on his translations of classical authors, his theory of drama, debt to Plato, mythopoeia, and Christian humanism. See also Rudich, 1988.56.

44 SCHMIDT, EVELIES. “Vjačeslav Ivanov.” In Ägypten und ägyptische Mythologie — Bilder der Transition im Werk Andrej Belyjs. Slavistische Beiträge, 195. Munich: Verlag Otto Sagner, 119—34.

In German. The opening chapter deals with the response of Russian symbolists to Egyptian themes and includes discussion of V. Solov’ev and Ivanov as a prelude to the examination of Belyi’s use of images derived from Egyptian mythology.

45 SERMAN, ILYA. “Vyacheslav Ivanov and Russian Poetry of the Eighteenth Century.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Translated by Jean Laves Hellie. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 190—208.

Examines Ivanov’s resurrection in his art of the forgotten achievements of eighteenth-century poetry. Dwells on his reputation for difficulty as recognized by his contemporaries and as evinced by his own notes to his verse, citing the examples of “Krasota” [Beauty], “Terpandr” [Terpander] and “Pietà.” Links the practice of authorial poetic commentary to the literary situation at the beginning and end of the eighteenth century in the works of Kantemir and Derzhavin. Identifies echoes of the linguistic features of Lomonosov and Derzhavin in Ivanov’s verse. Relates Ivanov’s view of the Greek richness

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inherent in the Slavonic language to a passage from Lomonosov’s “Introduction on the Use of Church Books.” Comments on the resulting “conscious archaization” of Ivanov’s style and on the influence of his “difficulty” in mapping out new paths for Russian poetry.

46 SHELOGUROVA, G. “Ob interpretatsii mifa v literature russkogo simvolizma” [On the interpretation of myth in the literature of Russian symbolism]. In Iz istorii russkogo realizma kontsa XIX — nachala XX v. [On the history of Russian realism at the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century]. Edited by A. G. Sokolov. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 122—35.

In Russian. In the context of a discussion of the use of myth by Briusov, Sologub, Annenskii, and others, outlines Ivanov’s interpretation of myth in his poems and in Prometei [Prometheus] (pp. 130—32). See also Shelogurova, 1988.58.

47 STAMMLER, HEINRICH. “Vyacheslav Ivanov and Nietzsche.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 297—312.

Considers the biographical and intellectual context of Ivanov’s encounter with Nietzsche. Links Ivanov’s religious approach to Nietzsche’s aesthetic interpetation of Dionysus with his interest in Schiller and Wagner. Dwells on his debt to the research of the Swiss scholar Johann Jakob Bachofen on the primeval matriarchate and its dominant role in ancient religion. Criticizes his attempt to systematize Nietzsche’s fluid thought, reducing it to two crucial points, his atheism and his preaching of the “Super-Man,” while ignoring the tragic spiritual aspect of his inability to believe in God. See Lane, 1976.8; Rosenthal, 1986.42; Clowes, 1988.12.

48 STANKIEWICZ, EDWARD. “V. I. Ivanov’s Views on the Sound Fabric of Poetry.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 96—107.

Considers Ivanov’s view of the role of sound in the structure of verse with reference to his essay “K probleme zvukoobraza u Pushkina” [On the problem of the sound image in Pushkin] (written in 1925, published in 1930). Locates his ideas within the context of earlier European approaches to the subject. Analyzes his view of the three stages of the process of poetic creativity and of the relation of meaning and form, drawing on later essays. Comments on his critique of the Formalist theories of poetic form in his article “O noveishikh teoreticheskikh iskaniiakh v oblasti khudozhestvennogo slova” [On

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the latest theoretical research in the field of the artistic word] (1922). See also Obatnin, 1992.17.

49 STRADA, VITTORIO. “La scomoda eredità di Vjaceslav Ivanov.” La Corriere della Sera (Milan), no. 204, 2 September, 3.

In Italian. On the day of the opening of the third international symposium on Ivanov at the University of Pavia (2—5 September 1986), interviews Dimitri Ivanov about his father and the current revival of interest in his works in the Soviet Union.

50 TAMARCHENKO, ANNA. “The Poetics of Vyacheslav Ivanov: Lectures Given at Baku University.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 83—95.

Summarizes the course of lectures on poetics given by Ivanov at the University of Baku in 1921—1922, as recorded in the notes of O. Ter-Grigorian (a manuscript of 175 pages). Describes Ivanov’s definition of the subject of poetics, his constant striving toward integration and synthesis, his observance of the logical transition from historical to philosophical poetics, his view of the strophe as the basis of metrical composition and of the structural role of recurrent ideas, his criteria for determining artistic value in works of art and poetry, and his legendary lecturing manner. Cites the examples of his discussion of the essence of poetry and of the increasing role of fate in modern drama following the erosion of the concept of the free personality. Emphasizes the innovative nature and continuing value of Ivanov’s course of lectures. For an earlier essay on these lectures, see Bel’kind, 1980.1.

51 TERRAS, VICTOR. “Vyacheslav Ivanov’s Esthetic Thought: Context and Antecedents.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 326—45.

Defines the essential ingredients and sources of Ivanov’s aesthetic thought. Characterizes it as “a basic idealist monism, dialectically realized,” “organic” and Neoplatonic. Describes his ontology as well as his aesthetics as dynamic, conceiving of art as a form of energy, like the Word. Derives his dichotomy of Dionysian descent and Apollonian ascent from Nietzsche and relates his view of the creative process to that of Gaston Bachelard. Regards his philosophy of history as genetic and his conception of drama as basically Hegelian. Dwells on his distinction between “grand art” and “small art,” and finds that he is critical of those aspects of modern art that are in conflict with his monistic philosophy of art. The most important sources of his aesthetic are

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in Schelling, Hegel, Nietzsche, Goethe, Novalis, and Tiutchev. See also Terras, 1983.26, 1984.26, 1990.58.

52 TOPOROV, V. N. “Dve zametki o Tantale” [Two notes on Tantalus]. Balkany v kontekste sredizemnomor’ia: Problemy rekonstruktsii iazyka i kul’tury. Tezisy i predvaritel’nye materialy k simpoziumu [The Balkans in the context of the Mediterranean world: The problems of reconstructing a language and a culture. Theses and preliminary materials for a symposium]. Edited by Viach. Vs. Ivanov, V. P. Neroznak, V. N. Toporov, and T. V. Tsiv’ian. Moscow: Institut slavianovedeniia i balkanistiki AN SSSR, 74—81.

In Russian. The first note deals with the etymology of the name “Tantalus.” The second note “O tragedii Viach. Ivanova ‘Tantal’: K istolkovaniiu” [On Viach. Ivanov’s tragedy “Tantalus”: Towards an exegesis] (pp. 76—81) develops an interpretation of Ivanov’s drama based on a detailed analysis of certain semantic features. Regards the drama as an undervalued work, showing deep insight into the ancient idea of Tantalus and historical accuracy. Interprets it as a tragedy of freedom (when understood as an arbitrary existential concept) as well as of loneliness. See also Toporov, 1989.61.

53 TSCHÖPL, CARIN. “Stikhotvoreniia i poemy Viacheslava Ivanova v izdanii ‘Biblioteki poeta’” [Poems and longer verse by Viacheslav Ivanov in the Biblioteka poeta edition]. Russkaia mysl’ (Paris), no. 3653—3654, 26 December, 16.

In Russian. Reviews the 1976 Biblioteka poeta edition of Ivanov’s poems and translations (based on a talk given by the author at the symposium held at the University of Pavia in September 1986). Criticizes the textological principles of the edition, the printing of poems outside the context of their original cycles and books, in chronological order, but without any reference to the source of the dates ascribed to the poems. Finds that Averintsev’s introduction and earlier essay give only a very partial view of Ivanov. See Averintsev, 1975.1, 1976.1; Pomirchii, 1976.16.

54 VENCLOVA, TOMAS. “‘Jazyk’: An Analysis of the Poem.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 108—22.

Provides a close textual “microanalysis” of Ivanov’s sonnet “Iazyk” [Language] (1927) and uncovers the “complex intertwining of its phonological, grammatical and semantic themes.” Considers it in the context of a wider discussion of the metalinguistic characteristics of poetry. “Here Ivanov reveals a new and a final dimension. Language — and poetry — is just a portent, a prototype, a forerunner (predtecha) of a future universal ecumenic bond of people.” For a Russian version, see Venclova, 1986.55.

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55 VENCLOVA, TOMAS. “V. I. Ivanov: ‘Iazyk’” [V. I. Ivanov: “Language”] . In Neustoichivoe ravnovesie: Vosem’ russkikh poeticheskikh tekstov [Unstable equilibrium: Eight Russian poetic texts]. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 9. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 101—13.

In Russian. A version of 1986.54, published as a chapter of the author’s doctoral dissertation.

56 WELLEK, RENÉ. “The Literary Criticism of Vyacheslav Ivanov.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 220—35.

Comments on Ivanov’s literary criticism with reference to his essays on symbolism, realism, Goethe, Shakespeare and Cervantes, Schiller, Byron, Gogol’ (“the most interesting single literary essay,” “a brilliant essay”), Dostoevskii (to whom most space is devoted), and Tolstoi. Criticizes Ivanov’s distorted interpretation of Dostoevskii: “In their later stages Ivanov’s readings of Dostoevsky are misreadings explainable and excusable by his religious preoccupations, but misreadings nevertheless.” Concludes that Ivanov’s “criticism even of plots or figures is thus always a criticism of ideas, or rather of religious attitudes and beliefs.” For a German version of the section on Dostoevskii, see 1983.28. Reprinted: 1991.47.

57 WEST, JAMES. “Ivanov’s Theory of Knowledge: Kant and Neo-Kantianism.” In Vyacheslav Ivanov: Poet, Critic and Philosopher. Edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Lowry Nelson Jr. Yale Russian and East European Publications, 8. New Haven: Yale Center for International and Area Studies, 313—25.

Considers the relationship between Ivanov’s aesthetic and Kant’s. Examines a number of Ivanov’s statements about the cognitive function of art and about the legacy of Kant. Traces a veiled indictment of the consequences of post-Kantian relativism in Ivanov’s essays on Tolstoi (1911) and V. Solov’ev (1910). Discerns a dialogue with Kant “just below the surface” in “O granitsakh iskusstva” [On the boundaries of art] (1914). Concludes that Ivanov’s “fundamental reproach that Kant could not take the final step back into the world of human psychological and spiritual necessities still stands, provided we acknowledge that Kant had a more circumscribed goal.”